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Chapter

Cover Immigration & Asylum Law

4. Freedom of movement for EU nationals  

Gina Clayton, Georgina Firth, Caroline Sawyer, and Rowena Moffatt

This chapter discusses the law which governs the free movement of people within the EU. As such, it is principally about the movement of EU nationals. The movement of non-EU nationals, known in European law as third-country nationals, may come within the ambit of EU law due to their connection with EU nationals, for instance as a spouse, family member, or employee. The chapter concentrates on the rights of EU nationals and their families to move within the EU, and covers the powers to deport or remove EU nationals. It also considers the possible impacts of Brexit on free movement rights.

Chapter

Cover The Substantive Law of the EU

10. Legally Resident Third-Country Nationals and the EU  

This chapter considers the position of third-country nationals (TCNs) in the EU. It discusses Union legislation on movement, residence, employment, and family rights for TCNs. For EU citizens the state’s ability to exclude or expel is interpreted restrictively; for TCNs the relationship between the individual and the state is reversed. The chapter discusses measures concerning those already lawfully resident in the EU, the ‘first admissions’ directives, and the rights of Turkish workers and their families in the EU.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Concentrate

2. Copyright  

This chapter defines copyright as arising whenever a work is created under qualifying conditions. The Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA) defines eight types of work that fall under two categories: works that must be original or ‘authorial works’, including literary works, dramatic works, musical works, and artistic works; and works that need not be original or ‘entrepreneurial works’: films, sound recordings, broadcasts, and the typographical arrangement of published editions. Copyright is infringed by copying or communicating the whole or a substantial part of a work—referred to as primary infringement—or by dealing in infringing copies of a work—referred to as secondary infringement. There are some major and many minor defences to copyright infringement including the ‘fair dealing’ defences and the public interest. Many aspects of copyright law have been harmonized by the European Union.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

19. International Mediation  

This chapter evaluates international mediation. Mediation is particularly effective as an alternative dispute resolution (ADR) process for resolving international disputes because it enables linguistic and cultural differences to be managed and respected to a greater extent than is possible in court proceedings. Moreover, it avoids complex arguments about which court has jurisdiction to determine the dispute and which system of law applies to the dispute. The chapter then looks at the EU Directive on mediation in civil and commercial matters, which sets minimum standards for mediation in EU countries. The United Kingdom has implemented the Directive by adding to the suspension of the operation of the limitation period while the parties are attempting mediation in a cross-border dispute, and providing for mediation settlement agreements in such disputes to be made orders of the court for ease of enforcement by enabling parties to apply for a Mediation Settlement Enforcement Order (MSEO).