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Chapter

Cover Wade & Forsyth's Administrative Law

7. Personal rights and freedoms  

Sir William Wade, Christopher Forsyth, and Julian Ghosh

This chapter considers the rights and freedoms provided by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR), and the Human Rights Act 1998.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Directions

5. The Human Rights Act 1998 (2): proceedings and remedies  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter continues the analysis of the Human Rights Act. It discusses how cases can be brought under the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) and what remedies are available from the courts if a violation of a Convention right is found. The aim here is to delve deeper into the issue of how the rights of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) are given further effect in the law of the UK by the HRA. The main issues discussed in the chapter include the importance of remedies and Article 13 ECHR—the right to a remedy, procedural issues for seeking remedies under the HRA, and remedies available under the HRA.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Directions

10. Article 4: prohibition of slavery and forced labour  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses slavery and forced labour, and the ban on these imposed by the European Convention on Human Rights. ‘Slavery’ and ‘servitude’ are defined as the ownership or total control of one person by another. A slave has no freedom or autonomy and so is denied the minimum dignity that is essential for any human being. ‘Forced labour’, on the other hand, is defined as being forced to work for another under threat of punishment or death. The application of these terms in the context of current practice and, in particular, to ‘modern slavery’ is discussed.

Chapter

Cover Cross & Tapper on Evidence

XIII. Hearsay in civil proceedings  

This chapter discusses the hearsay rule in the context of civil proceedings. It begins with a consideration of Section 1 of the Civil Evidence Act 1995 (CEA). Doubts have been raised as to whether the Act is compatible with the ECHR, and on any basis, there are procedural differences between the methods of adducing different forms of hearsay under the provisions of the act. Consideration of the effect of the act in changing the law thus constitutes the first, and more important, section of this chapter. The chapter then turns to how the provisions of the act indicate that some of the existing rules relating to the admissibility of hearsay in civil proceedings remain in force.

Chapter

Cover Evidence Concentrate

6. Hearsay evidence  

This chapter, which focuses on hearsay evidence and its relationship to confessions, first considers the rule against hearsay and its application to out-of-court statements of witnesses in civil and criminal cases. It then looks at statements, both oral and written, and gestures, as well as the admissibility of hearsay in criminal proceedings under the Criminal Justice Act (CJA) 2003 and, in outline, in civil proceedings under the Civil Evidence Act (CEA) 1995. The survival of some common law rules on hearsay is discussed. The chapter also explains the legal distinction between first-hand (what X told Y) and multiple hearsay (what X told Y who told Z). It concludes by discussing the landmark decisions under Art 6(3)(d) of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR).

Chapter

Cover Land Law

14. Land Law and Human Rights  

This chapter examines the relationship between land law and human rights. From a distinctly land law perspective, human rights discourse has given rise to much debate, which continues to fuel much academic commentary including recent examination of the availability of horizontal effect in McDonald v McDonald in the Supreme Court and in the European Court of Human Rights. The chapter focuses chiefly on the two most pertinent provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) for land law; namely Art. 1 of Protocol 1 and Art. 8 and reflects on the, at times, difficult relationship between land law and human rights.

Chapter

Cover Immigration & Asylum Law

5. Immigration law and human rights  

Gina Clayton, Georgina Firth, Caroline Sawyer, and Rowena Moffatt

This chapter discusses human rights law as it affects immigration and asylum. It explains how human rights apply to decisions on entry and removal, and the extraterritorial application of Article 3, and its nature as an absolute right. The chapter discusses Article 8, and how the proportionality test is applied to removal decisions in particular. It considers the effect on Article 8 cases of the immigration rules, the Immigration Act 2014, and case law interpreting the relationship between the rules, statute, and human rights. It briefly covers other Articles, including recent cases on Article 10. It also refers to the interaction of human rights with the duty in s 55 Borders Citizenship and Immigration Act 2009 to have regard to children’s welfare.

Chapter

Cover Learning Legal Rules

9. ‘Bringing Rights Home’: Legal Method and the Convention Rights  

In the twenty-first century, two important pan-European forces to which English law has been subject are the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and the Human Rights Act (HRA) 1998. This chapter discusses the following: the scope, outline, and enforcement of the ECHR to identify and protect fundamental human rights and freedoms and the balancing of these freedoms against the sovereignty of Parliament; its incorporation into the HRA 1998; incorporation under the devolution Acts; the consequences for legal method; and practical and conceptual issues raised by the HRA 1998 around legal research and argumentation. It closes by looking at the prospects of a ‘British Bill of Rights’.

Chapter

Cover Street on Torts

22. Privacy actions in tort  

This chapter examines the privacy action in tort. It explains that the tort has its origins in the equitable wrong of breach of confidence. It discusses the gist and elements of this tort and highlights the influence of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights on the case law. The law now protects against infringements of private information and against infringements upon the seclusion of the individual. This chapter also discusses potential defences, which include consent to the disclosure and the differential treatment of private information in the public domain.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

3. The court system of England & Wales  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter outlines the courts and tribunals system of England & Wales, first explaining key themes and concepts that are essential for understanding the structure and mechanics of English courts and tribunals. It then discusses the criminal courts and civil courts of England and Wales; it then focusses on other courts and forums that have significance in the English legal system, but which are not part of the English court system. The most significant of these are the European Court of Human Rights and the European Court of Justice, and alternatives to litigation (alternative dispute resolution, arbitration, Ombudsmen, and negotiation).

Chapter

Cover Complete EU Law

9. Human rights in the European Union  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter begins with a brief history of human rights protection in Europe, including the separate role of the Council of Europe and the ECHR, as well as that of the EU and EU law. It then discusses the development of human rights protection by the EU; the need for human rights protection against the EU and its Member States; the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU; the enforcement of human rights in EU law; and the possibility of EU accession to the ECHR.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Human Rights and Civil Liberties

3. The European Convention on Human Rights  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; all making your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter examines the European Convention on Human Rights and the role of the European Court of Human Rights.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Human Rights and Civil Liberties

9. The Right to Private Life  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; all making your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter covers the right to private and family life, including the scope of privacy and private and family life, protection in domestic law and under the ECHR, privacy and press freedom, and surveillance powers and privacy.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Concentrate

10. Terrorism  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on terrorism as a contested concept and the controversy surrounding its definition, along with the debate about the relationship between anti-terror law and human rights. It looks at the issue of compatibility between anti-terror law and human rights in the context of the rule of law and proportionality. The chapter also examines the European Court of Human Rights’ (ECtHR) interpretation of Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) as well as the conditions under which states can derogate from the ECHR. Finally, it considers anti-terror law in the UK and the challenges it has faced in the courts.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Concentrate

3. The Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA)  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA), which was introduced to allow individuals to argue cases involving rights contained in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) directly before a UK court. It first explains the background and rationale underlying the HRA, focusing on the arguments for and against a Human Rights Act, as well as the human rights that are covered and not covered by the HRA. The chapter then discusses the judicial powers/duties and remedies under the HRA, along with powers of derogation and reservation, with an emphasis on ECtHR case law, the interpretation clause, and declarations of incompatibility with the Convention rights. In addition, it examines the HRA’s use of proportionality and judicial deference doctrines when deciding whether an act by a public authority is incompatible with a Convention right. The chapter concludes by assessing the future of the HRA.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Concentrate

8. Freedom of assembly and association  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on freedom of assembly and association, which is dealt with together in Article 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) but separately in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). It looks at the various forms of an assembly, and considers forms of association such as political parties, other interest groups, and trade unions, and how a state must justify any restriction on Article 11(1) given the extremely narrow margin of appreciation when it comes to political parties. The chapter also discusses public order and protest that has led to litigation in England and Wales to determine what is meant by imminent breach of the peace, the limits on processions and assembly, and the proportionality of state measures under Article 11 (with Articles 10 and 5).

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Concentrate

9. Freedom from discrimination  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on freedom from discrimination, beginning with an overview of equality as a contested concept as well as formal and substantive forms of equality, and then examines the United Nations’ development of specific treaty and charter mechanisms to protect individuals against discrimination. It then discusses Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), which gives limited protection against discrimination but has been expanded by the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) in its case law and via Protocol 12. Finally, the chapter examines the consolidation and expansion of equality laws in the UK (except for Northern Ireland) under the Equality Act 2010.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Directions

3. The European Convention and the law of the United Kingdom  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter focuses on the European Convention on Human Rights, which the UK signed in 1950, and on its impact in the UK prior to the Human Rights Act coming into force in October 2000. The UK’s signing of the Convention entailed the country’s acceptance of the obligation to ‘secure for everyone within [its] jurisdiction the rights and freedoms in Section 1 of this Convention’. The Convention is not applied directly by the UK courts. The Convention remains part of international law, which is not directly enforceable in UK courts. The chapter also considers the development of fundamental common law rights which have developed in parallel to the Convention. There is a section on ‘Brexit’ and its impact on the protection of human rights in the UK.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Directions

7. Ancillary rights  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter focuses Convention rights that are considered ancillary by virtue of the fact that they do not in themselves establish any substantive human rights but are relevant to the way the substantive rights are put into effect. Specifically, the chapter discusses Article 14, which prohibits discrimination in the way Convention rights and freedoms are secured; Article 15, which allows states to derogate from their responsibilities under certain circumstances; Article 16, which allows states to restrict the political activities of aliens; Article 17, which authorises the ECtHR and national courts to refuse to uphold the rights of those who would use them to undermine the rights of others; and Article 18, which insists that rights and freedoms in the Convention can be restricted and qualified.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Directions

8. Article 2: right to life  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter focuses on Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which imposes on the state the general duty of protecting ‘everyone’s right to life’. Article 2 specifically states that the first duty of states is to protect the physical security of all those within their jurisdiction. It describes the only purposes for which the intentional use of force can be lawfully justified. In interpreting and applying Article 2, the European Court of Human Rights has identified and developed a number of general principles to which the domestic laws of signatory states must adhere—in particular the duty to investigate deaths for which the state is responsible. These principles are discussed in detail in the chapter.