1-20 of 27 Results

  • Keyword: Consumer Rights Act 2015 x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

4. Contract III: contractual terms and statutory protection  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses contractual terms and statutory protection. Parties to a contract may express terms and/or terms may be implied. The sources and effects of implied terms are essential to the rights of the parties and obligations imposed on them. Terms can be implied through the courts, through customs, and from statute. Terms are identified as conditions, warranties, or innominate and this distinction is relevant when identifying remedies for breach. Statutes regulate the rights and obligations applicable to consumers and traders. These include the Sale of Goods Act 1979, the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, and the substantial changes in contracts between consumers and traders introduced through the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Contract Law

5. Exemption Clauses and Unfair Terms  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and other features. This chapter focuses on the regulation of exclusion/exemption clauses and other potentially unfair terms. It discusses both common law (such as approaches to incorporation and interpretation) and statutory regulation (such as the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and the Consumer Rights Act 2015). It also explores two key debates: the nature of an exemption clause, and the tension between freedom of contract and judicial and statutory intervention in the context of exemption clauses.

Chapter

Cover Complete Contract Law

7. Exemption Clauses and Unfair Terms  

This chapter assesses exemption clauses and unfair terms. Exemption clauses are terms that either exclude or limit the liability of a party. The law relating to the use of such clauses is a mixture of rules found in both the common law and legislation; the common law rules apply to all contracts. In addition, the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 applies to the use of exemption clauses in contracts between two businesses. For consumers, the Consumer Rights Act 2015 provides wider protection from unfair terms including exemption clauses. The practical context of exemption clauses is simple. One party will be in breach and so the other will seek compensation for the loss caused by the breach. The party in breach will then defend the action by relying on an exemption clause. The dispute is then about whether or not the clause can be relied upon. The circumstances in which terms might be assessed for being ‘unfair’ can be wider than this. Typically, a business will take action against a consumer following the consumer’s failure to perform an obligation, which will then prompt the consumer to challenge the obligation as based on an unfair term.

Chapter

Cover O'Sullivan & Hilliard's The Law of Contract

8. Terms of the contract II: common law and statutory controls on unfair terms  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter examines potentially unfair terms, including exemption clauses, in a contract. It considers the common law’s response to exemption clauses and other potentially unfair terms, and discusses statutory schemes to regulate them. It covers the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 (UCTA) which governs exemption clauses in non-consumer contracts, subjecting them to a requirement of reasonableness where the contract was made on standard terms. It also discusses in detail the Consumer Rights Act 2015 (CRA), which regulates terms in consumer contracts, prohibiting certain exclusion clauses completely and imposing a general test of fairness upon all terms apart from the core terms.

Book

Cover Tort Law Concentrate
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Having begun with a consideration of the meaning of tort and the context of the ‘tort system’, Tort Law Concentrate covers the key elements of negligence: duty of care, breach of duty, and causation. Economic loss and psychiatric injury are specifically discussed. The book also explains the intentional torts: trespass to the person and to land as well as the tort in Wilkinson v Downton are covered, as is product liability. The family of nuisance torts, with their importance for environmental control are included, as is the key issue of remedies. This new edition includes coverage of recent case law, such as Barclays Bank plc v Various Claimants (2020) and Lachaux v Independent Print (2019). This edition has been fully updated in light of developments in the law, including the continuing impact of the Human Rights Act 1998 and the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

Chapter

Cover Information Technology Law

24. Contractual issues  

Any product can have defects – or at least fail to meet the expectations of a purchaser. A range of statutory provisions confer rights on a party acquiring goods if these are not of satisfactory quality. Software and what is referred to as “digital content” is covered by these provisions although their application gives rise to a number of difficulties. Unlike most physical products where defects will be found in one or a small number of the items, every digital work will be an exact copy of the original. If one product is considered faulty, the same fate may await all of the others. In most instances software is licenced rather than sold. It is commonplace for a licence to seek to restrict or exclude liabilities that might otherwise arise. The question may then be whether the terms of the licence are enforceable. In many instances they may be brought to the customer’s attention after the contract for supply has been concluded. The use of “click-wrap” licences where a user has to click on a box indication acceptance of contractual terms prior to using the software may assist but questions of time will again be very significant.

Chapter

Cover Anson's Law of Contract

6. Exemption Clauses and Unfair Terms  

Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrows, and John Cartwright

This chapter discusses the common law and statutory rules governing exemption clauses, and the control of unfair terms. Written contracts frequently contain clauses excluding or limiting liability. This is particularly so in the case of ‘standard form’ documents drawn up by one of the parties or a trade association to which one of the parties belong. At common law there are special rules on the incorporation of exemption clauses, special rules of construction applicable to them, and a few miscellaneous other common law rules designed to control them. The chapter first considers those common law rules before going on to the legislative control of exemption clauses and unfair terms. The focus of the discussion of statutory control is the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 for non-consumer contracts, and the Consumer Rights Act 2015 for consumer contracts.

Chapter

Cover Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins' Law of Contract

10. Exemption clauses and legislation  

This chapter deals with the statutory policing of exemption clauses under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 (UCTA) and addresses the changes to the law made by the Consumer Rights Act 2015. It explains the structure of UCTA and how to use it. It considers the different types of situations in which exemption clauses fall within it, under different sections (e.g. s 2 negligence, s 3 written standard terms of business, s 6 and s 7 goods contracts), and the need to consider whether a section renders a clause automatically ineffective or subjects it to the requirement of reasonableness. It looks at the application of the requirement of reasonableness and factors which have been identified as significant, such as the potential for insurance, the availability of alternatives, and reasons for a level of limitation. It considers the meaning of the UCTA’s definition of ‘deals as consumer’.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

1. Introduction to the law of contract  

Robert Merkin, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. Contracts are legally enforceable agreements intended for planned exchanges that are regulated by the principles of contract law. This chapter looks at some of the main theories underpinning the development of English contract law and examines the nature of contractual liability. Contractual obligations arise largely from party agreement and this distinguishes contractual liability from liability in tort. Given the continued relevance of English law in a globalized world (in spite of the UK exiting the European Union), this chapter also briefly introduces the various attempts to produce a set of harmonized principles such as the Common European Sales Law, along with the impact of other international developments including the growth in e-commerce and electronic communications. Moreover, the chapter analyses the most significant European directives and their effect on the development of English contract law, especially in the context of consumer contracts. The implementation of these European directives has resulted in the introduction of the concept of ‘good faith’ into English contract law. Given the increasing importance of good faith as a concept, especially when in the context of ‘a relational contract’, the chapter gives detailed discussion on the scope of and application of good faith in performance of the contract. Finally, the chapter considers the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive in a number of statutory instruments and the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

1. Introduction to the law of contract  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas of the law curriculum. Contracts are legally enforceable agreements intended for planned exchanges that are regulated by the principles of contract law. This chapter looks at some of the main theories underpinning the development of English contract law and examines the nature of contractual liability. Contractual obligations arise largely from party agreement, and this distinguishes contractual liability from liability in tort. Given the continued relevance of English law in a globalized world (in spite of the UK exiting the European Union), this chapter also briefly introduces the various attempts to produce a set of harmonized principles such as the Common European Sales Law, along with the impact of other international developments including the growth in e-commerce and electronic communications. Moreover, the chapter analyses the most significant European directives and their effect on the development of English contract law, especially in the context of consumer contracts. The implementation of these European directives has resulted in the introduction of the concept of ‘good faith’ into English contract law. Given the increasing importance of good faith as a concept, especially in the context of ‘a relational contract’, the chapter gives detailed discussion on the scope of and application of good faith in performance of the contract. Finally, the chapter considers the implementation of the Consumer Rights Directive in a number of statutory instruments and the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

14. Delivery and payment  

This chapter considers the duty of the seller to deliver the goods and the duty of the buyer to accept the goods and to pay the price. Payment and delivery are concurrent conditions in a contract of sale. This means that the seller must be ready and willing to deliver the goods, and the buyer must be ready and willing to pay for them in accordance with the terms of the contract. The parties to the contract can make whatever agreement they want in respect of delivery and payment and, in practice, will often do so in relation to the time, place, and manner of the delivery and the payment. Where the parties have not agreed on these matters, the Sale of Goods Act 1979 (SGA 1979) lays down certain rules, which are discussed in detail in the chapter. Similar rules apply to consumer sales under the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

Chapter

Cover Card & James' Business Law

9. Unfair terms  

This chapter examines unfair terms and exclusion clauses in a contract. It explains that exclusion and limitation clauses can be used by the parties to exclude or limit their liability and that they are regulated by statute and common law. It highlights the fact that an exclusion clause can only be effective if it is incorporated into a contract and if it was brought to the other party’s attention prior to the contract being formed. This chapter also discusses the relevant provisions of the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and the Consumer Rights Act 2015, and ongoing efforts to clarify the law in this area.

Chapter

Cover JC Smith's The Law of Contract

15. Exclusion clauses and unfair terms  

This chapter analyses the law on exclusion clauses and unfair terms. Exclusion clauses are terms which exclude or limit a defendant’s liability. The enactment of the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and the Consumer Rights Act 2015 has reduced the importance of common law techniques for avoiding the worst effects of exclusion clauses. Both statutes enable the courts to control the substance of the contract. The Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 only applies to non-consumer contracts. It empowers a court not to enforce exclusion clauses where they are unreasonable. Unlike the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, the Consumer Rights Act 2015 is not limited to exclusion clauses. A term will be unfair if, ‘contrary to the requirement of good faith, it causes a significant imbalance in the parties’ rights and obligations under the contract to the detriment of the consumer’.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

6. Exemption clauses  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Exemption clauses provide that one party will not be liable in certain situations; they exclude or limit liability. Exemption clauses have traditionally been frowned upon because they have been misused, often to the detriment of consumers, and the courts have responded by repeatedly looking for ways to cut them down. In recent years the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 has given the courts much stronger powers and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations have strengthened the position of consumers. These statutory controls have recently been radically overhauled in the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and this chapter provides a full explanation of these complex developments.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

6. Exemption clauses  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Exemption clauses provide that one party will not be liable in certain situations; they exclude or limit liability. Exemption clauses have traditionally been frowned upon because they have been misused, often to the detriment of consumers, and the courts have responded by repeatedly looking for ways to cut them down. In recent years the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 has given the courts much stronger powers and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations have strengthened the position of consumers. These statutory controls have recently been radically overhauled in the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and this chapter provides a full explanation of these complex developments.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

15. Statutory implied terms and statutory rights  

This chapter discusses the common law rule of caveat emptor, which today has been largely eroded by the original Sale of Goods Act 1893 (SGA 1893) that introduced the statutory implied terms of quality and fitness for purpose. It is shown here that the principle of caveat emptor is still alive and well in relation to purely private sales because the terms implied by the Sale of Goods Act 1979 (SGA 1979) in relation to the quality and fitness for purpose of the goods only apply to sales made in the course of a business. Sale of goods contracts are still, therefore, governed by the principle of caveat emptor to some extent, although this is subject to other enactments. This chapter also discusses the Consumer Rights Act 2015 (CRA 2015) which came into force on 1 October 2015.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law

7. Occupiers’ Liability  

Dr Karen Dyer and Dr Anil Balan

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the issue of occupiers’ liability. In order to answer questions on this topic, students need to understand the following: the Occupiers’ Liability Act 1957; the Occupiers’ Liability Act 1984; the ‘control test’—how ‘occupiers’ have been identified by the courts; the difference between a ‘visitor’ and a ‘non-visitor’, and the legal differences that arise; how the courts have interpreted ‘reasonable care’; the concept of ‘breach of duty’ and ‘causation’ in negligence; excluding or restricting negligence liability under s. 65 Consumer Rights Act 2015; and general defences in tort law.

Chapter

Cover Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins' Law of Contract

11. Unfair terms in consumer contracts  

This chapter addresses the Directive on Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts and its implementing legislation: the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999 and the Consumer Rights Act 2015. The legislation is of broad application to unfair terms in consumer contracts. The fairness test, with its reference to good faith, and significant imbalance in the rights and obligations of the parties, is considered. The ‘core exemption’, from the fairness test, of price terms and those dealing with the main subject matter of the contract is looked at. The tensions in the different approaches to ‘core exemption’ in the Court of Appeal and the Supreme Court in Abbey National, and the different emphases on freedom of contract, and protection of the weaker party, are highlighted.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

6. Exemption clauses and unfair contract terms  

Robert Merkin and Séverine Saintier

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. This chapter deals with exemption clauses and unfair contract terms. An exemption clause is a term in a contract or notice that can be either an exclusion clause (excluding liability or remedies) or a limitation clause (limiting liability to a specified sum). The chapter primarily focuses on the requirements that must be satisfied before an exemption clause can be relied upon, the question of construction and the natural and ordinary meaning of the clause, contra proferentem, liability for negligence, limitation clauses, inconsistent terms, and fundamental breach. It then examines the legislative regulation of exemption clauses, emphasizing the growing distinction between commercial and consumer contracts in this context. It considers in some depth the enforceability of exemption clauses in a B2B context in accordance with the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and its interpretation in case law. In the B2C context, it discusses control of unfair terms in accordance with Part 2 of the Consumer Rights Act 2015 and the case law interpreting the previous legislative regulation of unfair terms.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

11. Direct control over terms  

This chapter examines direct legal controls over the contents of contracts, with particular emphasis on the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 (UCTA) and the Consumer Rights Act 2015 (CRA). The pattern of control under UCTA and CRA is discussed, compared, and contrasted in terms of: the types of contracts covered; the parties who can benefit from, or be detrimentally affected by, the contract; the types of terms subject to control; the control mechanisms such as of outright invalidity and a test of reasonableness or fairness; and the enforcement mechanism, whether by the individual complainant or by a statutory body. Other statutory and common law controls of terms are also briefly discussed, as is the question of whether control of substantive unfairness by contract law can be justified.