This chapter charts some of the major developments in modern British society against which changes in criminal justice policy should be seen: the emergence of a culture of control amidst economic, technological, and social changes; the politicisation of law and order and the democratisation of criminal justice; the development of a risk society; and the emerging dominance of managerialism. It then discusses the notion of the ‘Big Society’ and considers its impact on criminal justice policy. The final section outlines some events that have driven changes in the direction of criminal justice policy.
This chapter discusses the importance of research ethics in criminology, with emphasis on ethical issues arising from research using human participants. It first considers the value of ethical approaches to research and moves on to address the particular issues raised by criminological research. It draws on the British Society of Criminology Statement of Ethics to explore the core ethical principles of confidentiality, anonymity, consent, and the avoidance of harm. The final section offers guidance on identifying and addressing ethical issues raised by one’s own research, along with suggestions on points to consider when formulating an application for approval for a Research Ethics Committee.