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All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter begins with analysis of the background to European integration. The focus then shifts to analysis of the Treaties and the principal Treaty revisions from the inception of the European Economic Community (EEC) to the present day. The EEC Treaty is examined, followed by the Single European Act, and the Maastricht, Amsterdam, and Nice Treaties. The discussion continues with examination of the failed Constitutional Treaty and the successful ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. The penultimate section deals with the impact of the financial crisis, the refugee crisis, the rule of law crisis, the pandemic crisis, and the Brexit crisis. This is followed by an overview of theories European integration offered to explain its evolution. The UK version contains a further section outlining the basic structure of UK legal relations with EU law post-Brexit.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter begins with analysis of the background to European integration. The focus then shifts to analysis of the Treaties and the principal Treaty revisions from the inception of the European Economic Community (EEC) to the present day. The EEC Treaty is examined, followed by the Single European Act, and the Maastricht, Amsterdam, and Nice Treaties. The discussion continues with examination of the failed Constitutional Treaty and the successful ratification of the Lisbon Treaty. The penultimate section deals with the impact of the financial crisis, the refugee crisis, the rule of law crisis, the pandemic crisis, and the Brexit crisis. This is followed by an overview of theories European integration offered to explain its evolution. The UK version contains a further section outlining the basic structure of UK legal relations with EU law post-Brexit.

Chapter

This chapter analyses what EU academics have termed the ‘democratic deficit’ in the EU. In EU law, the concept of the ‘democratic deficit’ is used to classify the EU as a system that may hold some of the qualities of a democratic government, but is lacking others. The chapter then investigates just how much ‘democracy’ exists in the EU decision-making processes. There are those who claim that the EU will never be democratic, and those who argue that the EU actually does not suffer from true shortcomings. The chapter evaluates both of those claims, and considers if recent big events in the EU — such as the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the so-called Eurozone financial crisis — impact upon the debate. It also looks at the nature of Brexit during the Withdrawal Agreement's transition period, as well as the future relationship between the UK and the EU.

Chapter

Gina Clayton, Georgina Firth, Caroline Sawyer, and Rowena Moffatt

This chapter introduces some of the policy issues which shape immigration law. It discusses migration policy in a global context; the institutional basis of immigration control; electronic borders; current drivers of UK policy, including security and economic migration; control within the borders, including the hostile environment policy; treatment of asylum seekers; the refugee crisis; and the role of the media. The chapter touches on the scrutiny of immigration functions by the Parliamentary Home Affairs Select Committee and the Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration. There is a short discussion of the ambivalence of UK immigration policy towards economic migration.

Chapter

Gina Clayton, Georgina Firth, Caroline Sawyer, Rowena Moffatt, and Helena Wray

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter introduces some of the policy issues which shape immigration law. It discusses migration policy in a global context; the institutional basis of immigration control; electronic borders; current drivers of UK policy; control within the borders including the hostile environment policy; treatment of asylum seekers; the refugee crisis; and the role of media. The chapter touches on the scrutiny of immigration functions by the Parliamentary Home Affairs Select Committee and the Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration. There is a short discussion of the ambivalence of UK immigration policy towards economic migration.

Chapter

This chapter provides a brief overview of EU and UK competition law and the institutions involved in formulating, interpreting and applying competition law in those jurisdictions. It also explains the relationship between EU competition law and the domestic competition laws of the Member States, in particular in the light of Article 3 of Regulation 1/2003. The rules of the European Economic Area are briefly referred to, and the trend on the part of Member States to adopt domestic competition rules modelled on those in the EU is also noted. Three diagrams at the end of the chapter explain the institutional structure of EU and UK competition law.