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This chapter focuses on the legislative process. In any one parliamentary session, somewhere between thirty and forty Public General Acts are passed. The vast majority of these are government-inspired measures. The actual process of legislating involves a number of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary stages. There are normally five stages in the parliamentary life of a Bill: first reading; second reading; committee stage; report stage; and third reading. Each of these stages is discussed in turn, as are the new arrangements where the Bill in question relates to England-only matters. Parliamentary sessions also address private Bills, hybrid Bills, Private Members’ Bills, consolidation Bills, and delegated legislation.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on the legislative process. In any one parliamentary session, somewhere between thirty and forty Public General Acts are passed. The vast majority of these are government-inspired measures. The actual process of legislating involves a number of parliamentary and extra-parliamentary stages. There are normally five stages in the parliamentary life of a Bill: first reading, second reading, committee stage, report stage, and third reading. Each of these stages is discussed in turn. Parliamentary sessions also address Private Bills, hybrid Bills, Private Members’ Bills, consolidation Bills, and delegated legislation.

Chapter

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter provides an overview of the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA 1998) and how it operates. It discusses the extent to which the Act fulfils the role of a ‘Bill of Rights’, as that concept is understood in other jurisdictions. A particular issue relevant to that discussion is that of ‘entrenchment’ and the extent to which the HRA 1998 can be said to have any special status different from other legislation. The supervision of the HRA 1998 is also considered.

Chapter

This chapter considers the remedies available to a seller if the buyer fails to pay for the goods pursuant to a contract of sale. It should be noted at the outset that the term ‘seller’ also includes ‘any person who is in the position of a seller, such as an agent of the seller to whom a bill of lading has been indorsed, or a consignor or agent who has himself paid (or is directly responsible for) the price’. This is of particular assistance to an agent who, having paid the price to the seller with the intention of recovering the money from the buyer, will have the same protection afforded to unpaid sellers as if he or she were the seller directly.

Chapter

This chapter considers the remedies available to a seller if the buyer fails to pay for the goods pursuant to a contract of sale. It should be noted at the outset that the term ‘seller’ also includes ‘any person who is in the position of a seller, such as an agent of the seller to whom a bill of lading has been indorsed, or a consignor or agent who has himself paid (or is directly responsible for) the price’. This is of particular assistance to an agent who, having paid the price to the seller with the intention of recovering the money from the buyer, will have the same protection afforded to unpaid sellers as if he or she were the seller directly.

Chapter

This chapter examines ‘primary legislation’, in the form of UK Acts of Parliament, and how they are made. The discussions cover who or what is the ‘legislature’ in the British constitution; the roles of different institutions in policymaking; drafting bills by Parliamentary Counsel; pre-legislative scrutiny of some ‘draft bills’ before the start the formal legislative process in Parliament ; the parliamentary year; parliamentary stages of a bill—first reading, second reading, committee stage, report stage, and third reading; bills of constitutional importance; the constitutional framework for bringing legislation into force; how government and Parliament carries out post-legislative scrutiny of some Acts of Parliament to review how they are operating in practice; and legislative functions in the British system of devolution.

Chapter

This chapter explores the principle of parliamentary sovereignty. It defines the theory in orthodox terms set out by Dicey and explains the manner in which it has developed out of the Bill of Rights and on the back of the unsettled constitutional times that prevailed during the seventeenth century. It then sets out the legal basis for sovereignty, calling on the authority of Wade, Jennings, and Goldsworthy to explain the importance of the courts’ role in determining and providing the foundation for Parliament’s authority. Next, it explores the fundamental aspects of the orthodox theory, explaining how that operates in practice and discussing the various challenges and limitations that have arisen since the late nineteenth century. The chapter concludes by considering the position of parliamentary sovereignty today, analysing the extent to which orthodox Diceyan theory can be said still to be relevant.

Chapter

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter focuses on bills of exchange, especially in the context of international trade. It first provides an overview of how bills of exchange are used as a method of payment before discussing the relevant provisions of the Bills of Exchange Act 1882. It then considers the definition of a bill of exchange, how a bill of exchange is transferred, and persons entitled to the benefit of the obligation on the bill. It also examines the general principles governing liability on the bill of exchange as well as the enforcement and discharge of the bill. Finally, it looks at mistaken payment, focusing on cases where the payment was received in good faith and in ignorance of the mistake.

Chapter

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter focuses on the use of cheques and similar instruments as a mode of payment in commercial transactions, and discusses the relation between them and bills of exchange (of which they are a specialised type). Cheques are intended as instruments which will immediately be paid, whereas bills of exchange are typically drawn payable at a future date and used as a credit instrument. Unlike bills of exchange, cheques are not, and are not intended to be, accepted by the bank on which they are drawn. This chapter first explains what a cheque is, and discusses the likely future of the institution, before discussing promissory notes, banker’s drafts, and travellers’ cheques.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on parliamentary sovereignty. The term ‘parliamentary sovereignty’ is normally defined as the ‘legislative supremacy of Parliament’. Since the constitutional settlement brought about by the Bill of Rights 1689, the UK Parliament has had unchallenged authority to create primary law. Parliament’s legislative supremacy means, therefore, that there is no competing body with equal or greater law-making power and there are no legal limits on Parliament’s legislative competence. Parliament has broad legislative power but cannot make unchangeable statutes, and a current parliament can reverse laws made by a previous parliament. Nobody but Parliament can override Acts of Parliament. The Enrolled Bill rule requires that, if a Bill has passed through the House of Commons and House of Lords and received royal assent, the courts will not enquire into what happened before or during the legislative process.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on parliamentary sovereignty. The term ‘Parliamentary sovereignty’ is normally defined as the ‘legislative supremacy of Parliament’. Since the constitutional settlement brought about by the Bill of Rights 1689, the UK Parliament has had unchallenged authority to create primary law. Parliament's legislative supremacy means, therefore, that there is no competing body with equal or greater law-making power and there are no legal limits on Parliament's legislative competence. Parliament has broad legislative power but cannot make unchangeable statutes, and a current parliament can reverse laws made by a previous parliament. Nobody but Parliament can override Acts of Parliament. The Enrolled Bill rule requires that, if a Bill has passed through the House of Commons and House of Lords and received royal assent, the courts will not enquire into what happened before or during the legislative process.

Chapter

There are a range of important sources of law beyond legislation and case law. These are materials that provide information on the content, meaning, and operation of the law and help students in their quest to understand the law. This chapter explains how to how to find these important supplementary resources. It covers books, journals, official publications, Halsbury’s Laws of England, Bills, and Hansard (Official Reports of Parliamentary Debates).

Chapter

This chapter describes the role of books (student textbooks, cases and materials books, monographs, practitioners’ books, legal encyclopaedias and digests, dictionaries, revision guides), journals (general journals, specialist journals, practitioner journals, foreign journals), and official publications (Command Papers, bills, parliamentary papers, parliamentary debates, Law Commission reports) among the secondary sources which may be encountered during legal studies.

Chapter

In the twenty-first century, two important pan-European forces to which English law has been subject are the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and the Human Rights Act (HRA) 1998. This chapter discusses the following: the scope, outline, and enforcement of the ECHR to identify and protect fundamental human rights and freedoms and the balancing of these freedoms against the sovereignty of Parliament; its incorporation into the HRA 1998; incorporation under the devolution Acts; the consequences for legal method; and practical and conceptual issues raised by the HRA 1998 around legal research and argumentation. It closes by looking at the prospects of a ‘British Bill of Rights’.

Chapter

This chapter describes the role of books (student textbooks, cases and materials books, monographs, practitioners’ books, legal encyclopaedias and digests, dictionaries, revision guides), journals (general journals, specialist journals, practitioner journals, foreign journals), and official publications (Command Papers, bills, parliamentary papers, parliamentary debates, Law Commission reports) among the secondary sources which may be encountered during legal studies.

Chapter

There are a range of important sources of law beyond legislation and case law. These are materials that provide information on the content, meaning, and operation of the law and help students in their quest to understand the law. This chapter explains how to find these important supplementary resources. It covers books, journals, official publications, Halsbury’s Laws of England, Bills, and Hansard (Official Reports of Parliamentary Debates).

Chapter

In the twenty-first century, two important pan-European forces to which English law has been subject are the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and the Human Rights Act (HRA) 1998. This chapter discusses the following: the scope, outline, and enforcement of the ECHR to identify and protect fundamental human rights and freedoms and the balancing of these freedoms against the sovereignty of Parliament; its incorporation into the HRA 1998; incorporation under the devolution Acts; the consequences for legal method; and practical and conceptual issues raised by the HRA 1998 around legal research and argumentation. It closes by looking at the prospects of a ‘British Bill of Rights’.

Chapter

The topic of privacy has many aspects. In some instances, especially where well-known figures are involved, it relates to the legal ability to stop the bringing of information about their private lives into a more public arena. For most people, it involves the ability to go about everyday life without having details of movements and actions recorded and analysed to form the basis for further actions relating to them. In some cases, this may appear relatively harmless. Most people are familiar with the notion of web advertising targeted by reference to a user’s browsing history but there have been more potentially threatening applications ranging from the use of automated facial recognition systems to monitor activity in public spaces to the oft cited use of Facebook data for political purposes as seen in the 2016 US Presidential election. More and more actions are recorded, processed and used as the basis for action that affects the individual concerned. Whether this is a force for good or ill is something that can be debated. What is clear is that informational surveillance will impact very significantly upon debates as to the nature of the societies that we wish to live in.

Chapter

The Q&A series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each chapter includes typical questions, diagram problem and essay answer plans, suggested answers, notes of caution, tips on obtaining extra marks, the key debates on each topic, and suggestions on further reading. This chapter describes issues relating to the Human Rights Act 1998. The questions presented here deal with issues such as the response to terrorism; the effect of the Human Rights Act 1998 on English law; whether the Human Rights Act 1998 should be replaced with a UK bill of rights; the Human Rights Act not changing parliamentary supremacy, but the courts being able to issue a declaration of incompatibility; and the effect of the Human Rights Act on individual rights.

Chapter

One of the most fundamental aspects of any constitution are the provisions and measures that protect the rights and freedoms of individuals. In the UK, rights protection is markedly different to that in America, in chief because there is no entrenched Bill of Rights. Rights protection is dominated by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), incorporated by the Human Rights Act 1998, which sets out a number of positive rights that are actionable in the UK courts This chapter discusses the ways in which these rights are protected in the UK Constitution. It discusses the courts’ historic civil liberties approach and common law protection of rights, before then examining the development, incorporation, and application of the ECHR. The chapter also explores the way in which the various sections of the Human Rights Act 1998 work to ensure appropriate enforcement and protection of rights in UK law.