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Chapter

Cover Jacobs, White, and Ovey: The European Convention on Human Rights

13. Aspects of the Criminal Process  

This chapter, which examines the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights on fair trial specific to criminal proceedings found in paragraphs (2) and (3) of Article 6, explains the scope of Article 6(2) and (3), and discusses the principle of legality and the judgments made by the Strasbourg Court in several related cases. It also considers the rule against retrospective legislation in Article 7 of the Convention and a number of additional rights connected with the criminal process introduced by Articles 2 to 4 of Protocol 7. The Court considers the relationship between the Court and domestic jurisdictions in relation to Article 6, Article 7, and Articles 2 to 4 of Protocol 7.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

3. The burden and standard of proof  

This chapter discusses the rules governing which party bears the legal and evidential burdens on which facts in issue. These rules can determine the eventual outcome of proceedings; determine which party has the right to begin adducing evidence in court; in what circumstances a defendant, at the end of the case for the prosecution, or claimant, may make a successful submission of no case to answer; and how the trial judge should direct the jury. The chapter begins by defining and distinguishing the legal, evidential, and other burdens, and then considers in detail which burden is borne by each of the parties on the various facts in issue in any given case. The chapter also considers the standard of proof in criminal proceedings where the burden is on the prosecution and on the accused. The standard of proof in civil proceedings is also considered.

Chapter

Cover Jacobs, White, and Ovey: The European Convention on Human Rights

12. The Right to a Fair Trial in Civil and Criminal Cases  

This chapter examines the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) on the right to a fair trial in criminal and civil cases, explaining that Article 6 of ECHR holds that the Strasbourg Court has no jurisdiction to reopen national legal proceedings or to substitute its own findings of fact for the conclusions of national courts. The chapter examines the interpretation by the Strasbourg Court of the protections provided by Article 6 in the extensive jurisprudence on this Article and discusses issues concerning the overall requirements of a fair hearing, right of access to court, and the extraterritorial effect of Article 6.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Concentrate

4. Moral rights  

There are two different types of rights labelled as ‘moral rights’ in the CDPA: rights for authors referred to as the rights of paternity and integrity; and other rights of all individuals: the right not to be falsely attributed as author of a work; and a right of privacy in privately commissioned photographs and films. These protect non-commercial aspects of the relationship between authors and their works. Thus, they cannot be assigned, and may be enforced even after the author has assigned or licensed their economic rights, and even against the owner or licensee. The rights last as long as copyright does and pass to the author’s beneficiaries on death. Different countries have implemented the Berne rights in different ways. Authors’ moral rights were introduced in 1988 to implement the Berne Convention; the UK does not protect them as fully as other countries, particularly civil law countries.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Directions

12. Article 6: right to a fair trial  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. Article 6 is the right to a fair trial. It looks at the scope of Article 6—the kinds of trial it deals with; and defines ‘determines’, ‘civil rights and obligations’, and ‘criminal charge’ for this purpose. It then goes on to consider the specific rights that are inherent in the idea of a hearing that is ‘fair’ and tribunal that is ‘independent’ and ‘impartial’. It also discusses the additional rights that are enjoyed by a defendant in a criminal trial. Of particular importance is the issue of adjusting the concept of ‘fairness’ to the circumstances, particularly in the context of threats to national security. The need to protect the essence of a right to a fair hearing where there are important public interests justifying restrictions is an issue that is at the heart of the Article 6 case law.

Chapter

Cover Evidence Concentrate

3. Confessions, and the defendant’s pre-trial silence  

This chapter focuses on confessions and on the defendant’s pre-trial silence. It explains how a defendant may be convicted on the evidence of a confession alone. It analyses the definition of a confession as specified in s82(1) of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE), and how a confession proffered by the prosecution or by a co-defendant may be excluded by rule under PACE. The chapter also considers the preservation of the common law discretion to exclude confession evidence as well as the procedure for police interrogation of suspects under PACE. It examines recent case law on the significance of lack of access to legal advice of a suspect under interrogation. It concludes with an examination of how the jury at trial may draw an inference of guilt under ss34, 36, and 37 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (CJPO), sections which have eroded the right to silence. The influence of the Strasbourg jurisprudence in this area is outlined.