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learned about the defence case, further material may fall within the scope of s 3 and thereby require disclosure. As the CPS Disclosure Manual states, ‘It is essential that [disclosure] is

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system, with appeal courts considered an essential feature of a fair system, and it is also much easier to build public interest and support in a case through digital media, as we explore

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on domestic violence cases found that after CPS review the vast majority of cases proceeded on the correct charge, but they concluded that 9 per cent of cases had not proceeded on the

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courts It is essential to be able to distinguish between matters of public law and those of private law as these classifications determine which court will hear the case and which party

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Inquiries in a case may be completed quickly or may spread over a considerable time, in which case the police have a duty to keep the victim informed of the progress of the case. Beyond such

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the most serious cases. If the magistrates decide to send the case to the Crown Court, the case will be dealt with there. If, however, the decision is to retain the case in the summary

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are concerned with the progress of the case from arrest through to court, or as far as the case goes; dispositive decisions, which divert a case from the process of prosecution and trial

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sudden-infant-death cases; HMRC controlled deliveries of drugs cases; cases linked to the disbanded West Midlands Police Serious Crime Squad, and youth confession cases from Northern Ireland

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all documents considered essential for the person to exercise their right of defence and to “safeguard the fairness of the proceedings”’. 119 In the case of a person making a statement

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should happen, what sentence to pass. Many people see equal treatment as essential to justice. If two cases are the same they should receive the same punishment, the same sentence;

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qualification, but it refers only to the evidential situation in the case. The fact that a power is believed to be essential in the fight against terrorism has been held insufficient to justify

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decide criminal cases: minor cases are heard at the magistrates’ courts while the Crown Court tries more serious cases. The first are referred to as ‘summary’ cases and the second are

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police on cases for possible prosecution; • taking cases from the police once a defendant has been charged or ‘summonsed’ (ordered to attend court); • presenting cases at court

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in force at the time of the original trials in these cases, but the principle of disclosure did exist. Similarly, in the case of the Maguire Seven, the outcome of certain tests carried

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do with the likely sentence in the case. The statistics are not sharp enough to determine the relative proportions of cases. Exactly how many cases depended only on one or the other

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(simultaneously) be civil wrongs (ie, torts). Criminal cases require proof ‘beyond all reasonable doubt’ whereas civil cases only require a ‘balance of probabilities’. Many activities

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points to link the essential points together or to elaborate on them? If you have too much material, repeat the exercise again, but this time divide only your essential points into the

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Angus Nurse

it difficult to pursue cases; • many villagers that are affected by oil pollution do not have the resources to bring legal cases. As a result, some cases are brought against the

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range of source material than would be the case if you restricted your reading to books from your reading list, but it is often the case that markers will give credit for independent

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2013–14, it accounted for 61 per cent (941 cases) of the total reasons for non-conviction; it has risen annually from the 45 per cent (693 cases) in 2009–10 ( HMIC, 2014 : 43–44). The reasons