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Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

17. Active Case Management and the Use of Sanctions  

This chapter discusses active case management and the use of sanctions. The Woolf reforms and more recently the Jackson reforms have supported the concept of active case management, the focus of which is to ensure that cases are dealt with ‘justly’ and ‘at proportionate cost’. The objectives of case management are set out in Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) Part 1 and the courts case management powers are in CPR Part 3. The powers of the court in relation to case management are wide and directions given after the issue of proceedings should provide a framework and timetable for dealing with a case right up to trial. The final section of the chapter deals with the sanctions that might be imposed where there is a failure to comply with case management requirements.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

20. Additional Claims under Part 20  

This chapter discusses the rules for additional claims under Part 20 of the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR). An additional claim typically will seek to pass any liability established against the defendant to a third party. This is achieved by seeking indemnities, contributions, or related remedies against the third party. A third party may in turn seek to pass on its liability to a fourth party, and so on. Permission to issue an additional claim is not required if the additional claim is issued before or at the same time as the defendant files its defence. An additional claim operates as a separate claim within the original claim.

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Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

34. Admissions and Documentary Evidence  

This chapter discusses the rules relating to the proof of admissions and documents at trial. It covers the nature of admissions; pre-action admissions of liability; permission to withdraw an admission; notice to admit facts; and proving documents.

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Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

4. ADR, Settlement, and Part 36 Offers  

In recent years alternative dispute resolution (ADR) has evolved from being a fallback in relation to litigation into an important alternative that may be the preferred option in some cases. This chapter outlines the interface between litigation and ADR, and puts litigation into the context of settlement options. ADR is only a complete alternative to litigation where a full adjudicative option such as arbitration or expert determination is used. In most disputes it is more likely that a case will move between litigation and ADR processes, or be subject to both at the same time where an offer has been made and remains open, but the litigation process continues. The chapter discusses the main types of ADR and their fit with litigation; framing an attempt to settle; drawing up terms of settlement; and making Part 36 offers, especially when costs are a major concern in litigation.

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Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

10. Alternative Dispute Resolution  

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR), particularly mediation, plays a key role in reducing the costs of civil disputes by fomenting the early settlement of cases. This chapter discusses ADR processes; advantages or disadvantages of ADR and litigation; the cost of ADR; reference to ADR; and court involvement in ADR. Adjudicative ADR results in the third party neutral deciding the dispute or difference between the parties. Non-adjudicative ADR processes involve moving the parties towards reaching a compromise agreement between themselves. Rules of court require parties to consider using ADR. Sanctions may be imposed on parties who act unreasonably.

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22. Amendment  

Changes in the parties’ knowledge of a case as it progresses and straightforward drafting errors make it necessary on occasion to make amendments to the statements of case. This chapter discusses amendment by consent; amendment without permission; principles governing permission to amend; amendment after the expiry of the limitation period; and procedure on amending.

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Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

50. Appeals  

This chapter considers the structure of non-family civil appeals. It covers routes of appeal; permission to appeal; time for appealing; procedure on appealing; respondent’s notice; applications within appeals stay; striking out appeal notices and setting aside or imposing conditions; hearing of appeals; appeal court’s powers; appeals by way of case stated; and appeals to the Supreme Court.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

7. The Approach of the Courts to ADR  

This chapter focuses on the approach of the courts to alternative dispute resolution (ADR). Parties are required to consider ADR before proceedings are issued by the protocols and Practice Direction—Pre-action Conduct. If ADR is not undertaken before issue, then it should be considered at the track allocation stage (when all the statements of case have been filed), and again after exchange of documents, and also when witness statements and expert evidence have been exchanged. The court will actively consider whether attempts have been made to settle the dispute by ADR at any case management conference, and may direct the parties to attempt ADR. If the parties reject ADR, before issue or at any stage of the litigation, they should have reasonable and cogent reasons for doing so and may be required to explain these reasons to the court. Moreover, the courts will seek to uphold and enforce ADR clauses in contracts.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

27. Arbitral Tribunals  

This chapter examines how arbitrations are commenced with a notice of arbitration and the appointment of arbitral tribunals. Typically, arbitral tribunals will have either a sole arbitrator or a panel of three arbitrators. There are a number of variations on this theme. Examples include tribunals with a chairperson or an umpire, and the use of judge-arbitrators. The chapter then describes the contractual basis of the appointment of arbitrators, and the procedures dealing with the removal, resignation, or death of an arbitrator. The Arbitration Act 1996 seeks to give effect to the parties' agreements (between themselves or with the arbitrators) if it becomes necessary for an arbitrator to resign or be removed, but there are fall-back provisions allowing applications to the court because it is recognized that agreement may not be possible given the possibly contentious nature of these situations.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

26. Arbitration  

This chapter discusses arbitration, which is an adjudicative dispute resolution process. It is based on an agreement between the parties to refer a dispute or difference between them to impartial arbitrators for a decision. As a consequence of the contractual basis of arbitration, it is not every dispute that can go to arbitration. The chapter considers the requirements for an effective reference to arbitration, but it should be noted that the agreement to arbitrate may be made before or after the relevant dispute has arisen. This means that there may be a pre-existing arbitration agreement which, when a dispute arises, one of the parties wishes to evade. There is a strong public policy in favour of upholding arbitration agreements; this is supported by the idea that an arbitration clause in a contract is separable from the rest of the substantive contract. Arbitrations in England and Wales are governed by the Arbitration Act 1996, which lays down a highly developed set of procedures for arbitrations.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

30. Arbitration Awards and Orders  

This chapter assesses four different types of awards and orders that are available to arbitrators. Procedural orders provide procedural directions and measures designed to preserve evidence or the subject-matter of the dispute (conservatory measures) while an arbitration is proceeding. Meanwhile, interim awards and awards on different issues dispose of one or more of the substantive issues in the arbitration, leaving the other issues to be decided later. Final awards dispose of the arbitration, while costs awards provide for the payment of the costs incurred in the arbitration between the parties. Usually, once an order or award is made, it is binding on the parties. Most sets of institutional arbitral rules include provision for parties making suggestions for the correction of clerical mistakes in orders and awards. Lawyers also need to advise their clients on the meaning and effect of the tribunal's decision, and where there is further work to be done, to take the client's instructions on the next steps.

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26. Challenging a Judgment  

Obtaining a judgment is not always the end of the process. A wholly or partly unsuccessful party in a trial will almost certainly wish to consider appealing. The procedure for appeal will vary depending on the type and level of decision appealed against. This chapter looks in particular at the procedure for appealing from the High Court to the Court of Appeal. The discussions cover the need for the client to decide whether to appeal against all or part of the judgment based on their lawyer's advice; jurisdiction for appeals; appeals from interim decisions; grounds for appeal; procedure for appealing; the position of the respondent to an appeal; presenting an appeal; powers on appeal; the appeal decision; and costs on appeal.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

3. The Civil Courts  

This chapter describes the civil courts in England and Wales. It covers the composition and administration of magistrates’s courts, County Court, and the High Court; jurisdiction; High Court Divisions (Queen’s Bench Division (QBD), Chancery Division (ChD), and Family Division), and specialist courts (Business and Property Courts, Technology and Construction Court, Commercial Court, Administrative Court, Companies Court, Patents Court, and Intellectual Property Enterprise Court). For most civil claims the claimant has a free choice between the High Court and the County Court. Common law claims are suitable for the Queen’s Bench Division, whereas equity claims are more suitable for the Chancery Division. The High Court should be used for the more important and complex claims.

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28. The Commercial Arbitration Process  

This chapter details the procedures followed in commercial arbitrations involving parties who are all located within England and Wales. Arbitration is intended to be private and confidential, concepts that flow from the private agreement of the parties to refer the matter to arbitration rather than the courts. There are many arbitral institutions, which may have their own institutional rules for arbitration, and they may also administer arbitrations. The chapter then considers how the procedural rules in the Arbitration Act 1996 are subject to contrary agreement by the parties. If institutional rules are silent on a procedural matter, the default provisions in the Arbitration Act 1996 apply. The chapter also looks at the role of legal representatives in arbitration, before discussing ‘look-sniff’ arbitrations and short-form arbitrations.

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21. Complaints, Grievances, and Ombudsmen  

This chapter addresses complaints, grievances, and ombudsman schemes, which are designed to provide effective and speedy relief where problems arise between a customer and an organization. It has become increasingly common for government agencies, companies, and organizations to have internal complaints and grievance procedures to look into and respond to any problems raised by their customers of a formal nature. It is seen to be good for customer relations for problems to be investigated by someone within the organization and for the problem to be resolved with the customer quickly and before it escalates into a contentious dispute. Efficient and effective complaints and grievance procedures also form part of an organization's quality control or quality assurance procedures, which are aimed at ensuring that high levels of service are maintained, with any weaknesses being addressed swiftly before other customers are affected by similar problems. Meanwhile, ombudsmen act like umpires in complaints brought against public or private organizations.

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20. Conciliation  

This chapter assesses conciliation, which is a voluntary process whereby a neutral third party facilitates negotiations between the parties to a dispute and assists them to reach a settlement. In England and Wales, conciliation tends to be court-driven and it is most often used in family and employment cases. In employment cases, the parties must attempt mandatory Early Conciliation with the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) before a claim is issued in the Employment Tribunal, and conciliation can also be undertaken by ACAS after a claim has been lodged if Early Conciliation did not result in a settlement. In-court conciliation also takes place in family cases in disputes relating to children and money on the breakdown of the relationship between the parties. In addition, a number of independent conciliation schemes exist to help consumers solve disputes in relation to goods or services.

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25. Construction Industry Adjudication  

This chapter looks at the process of adjudication in construction industry disputes. Adjudication resembles arbitration, in that it produces a decision on the dispute, but one that is only of a temporary nature. The process involves an adjudicator reaching a decision very swiftly (only 28 days after appointment), with the idea being to get a decision on how much a contractor should be paid, potentially followed by a full-blown investigation through the courts or in a formal arbitration if either party does not agree with the adjudicator's decision. The underlying policy is ‘pay now, argue later’. An adjudication award is binding, but is not registrable as a judgment, unlike an award in arbitration. Instead, enforcement is through suing on the adjudicator's decision, often followed by the entry of judgment in default or an application for summary judgment.

Chapter

Cover Partnership and LLP Law

11. The Corporate Structure  

This chapter explains the statutory requirements with respect to the formation of an LLP and explains the process by which an LLP is incorporated. It explains how, as an incorporated body, an LLP acts through its members and other agents, and how their acts and their potential wrongdoing can be attributed in law to the LLP itself. It addresses the concept of limited liability that is consequent to an LLP's incorporation, and identifies the obligations that are imposed on an LLP arising from limited liability, in terms of registration and publicity.

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Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

46. Costs  

This chapter focuses on legal costs. It discusses the two main principles for deciding which party should pay the costs of an application or of the whole proceedings; the rule that costs follow the event; range of possible costs orders; interim costs orders; indemnity principle; basis of quantification; proportionality; summary and detailed assessments; fast track fixed costs; fixed and scale costs; costs and track allocation; publicly funded litigants; pro bono costs orders; costs against non-parties; and wasted costs orders.

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17. Costs Capping and Protection  

Costs capping orders limit the amount of costs a party may be ordered to pay to its opponent. This chapter will consider the general rules governing costs capping in CPR, Part 3. When it comes into force, there will be a parallel statutory costs capping scheme for judicial review claims in the Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015, ss 88 and 89. In addition, there are a number of judge-made costs protection orders, namely: Beddoe orders; protective costs orders; Aarhus Convention cases; and costs limitation orders.