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All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the law on abortion, beginning with a survey of the ongoing debate over the moral legitimacy of abortion. It then examines the current legal position, and considers how the Abortion Act 1967, as amended, works in practice. It looks at recent controversies over sex-selective abortion and considers the prospects for law reform. Finally, the chapter looks briefly at the regulation of abortion in Northern Ireland, Ireland, and the United States.

Chapter

This chapter examines the law on abortion, beginning with debates over the moral legitimacy of abortion. It then examines the current legal position, and considers how the Abortion Act 1967, as amended, works in practice, as well as considering the prospects for law reform. Finally, the chapter looks briefly at the regulation of abortion in Northern Ireland, Ireland, and the United States.

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This chapter is concerned with the statutory provisions governing abortion and prenatal harm. It considers the offence of abortion under sections 58 and 59 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 and section 1(1) of the Infant Life (Preservation) Act 1929 and the defences available prior to the Abortion Act 1967. It discusses the ethical debates concerning abortion, exploring ‘right-to-life’ arguments and rights of parties such as the foetus and the father. It also looks at the court’s approach towards adult women who lack capacity, before concluding with an analysis of actions for prenatal harm, namely, wrongful birth, wrongful conception, prenatal injury, and wrongful life. Relevant cases are cited.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses the regulation of assisted conception. It first examines the regulation of assisted conception in the UK, which involves a detailed look at the legislation: the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990, and the work of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). The chapter analyses: the licensing procedures through which clinics are inspected and authorized to perform certain procedures; access to treatment; consent to the use of gametes (sperm and eggs); gamete donation; rules governing the parentage of children; and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). It also considers mitochondrial transfer and genome editing.

Chapter

This chapter examines the regulation of assisted conception in the UK, which involves a detailed look at the legislation: the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990, and the work of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). It examines: the licensing procedures through which clinics are inspected and authorized to perform certain procedures; access to treatment; consent to the use of gametes (sperm and eggs); gamete donation; rules governing the parentage of children; and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). It also considers mitochondrial transfer and genome editing.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines assisted dying. It looks at the current law, with particular emphasis upon the pressures currently being exerted on the status quo through British patients travelling to Dignitas in Switzerland for assisted suicides. The implications of the Nicklinson and Conway decisions are considered. The chapter sets out arguments for and against the legalization of voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide; and examines other countries’ experience with decriminalization.

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This chapter examines assisted dying. It looks at the current law, and arguments for and against its reform. It covers attempts to change the law in parliament and through human rights challenges in the courts. There is also brief coverage of other jurisdictions’ experience with legalization.

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This chapter deals with the statutory provisions governing assisted reproduction, with particular reference to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 (as amended) and the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority. It also explores the issue of access to services and whether these are available on the National Health Service, together with the ethical and legal issues surrounding the use and storage of gametes and embryos, surrogacy arrangements, and screening of embryos. Relevant cases are considered, where appropriate.

Chapter

G. T. Laurie, S. H. E. Harmon, and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses ethical and legal aspects of biomedical research. After highlighting the evolution and acceleration of rule-making in this setting, it differentiates between research and experimentation, and articulates a core regulatory concept, namely risk. It then covers ethical codes and legal instruments in human biomedical research, research ethics committees, randomised controlled trials, and experimental treatment, paying particular attention to informed consent and research involving people lacking capacity. It also addresses the unethical researcher, compensation for personal injury in research, research involving human tissue and personal data, and new approaches to research governance.

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G. T. Laurie, S. H. E. Harmon, and E. S. Dove

This chapter examines the question of the limits set on our right to control our bodies or parts thereof. This debate has centred on the very important issue of our relationship with our body, and the status of the body, which has most recently been shaped by ideas of property. The chapter considers three aspects of that debate: property in material taken from living persons; property in material taken from cadavers; and the granting of intellectual property rights in human material.

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This chapter explores how the law deals with cases involving children receiving medical care. It considers the circumstances in which children have capacity to consent to treatment. It explores the case law in cases where there is disagreement between parents and children over health care. It also looks at difficult cases where parents and doctors disagree on how to treat very sick children. The way the courts interpret the best interests of the child are examined. The chapter also explores the ethical and legal issues around the vaccination of children. The broader issue of whether there should be limits on the rights of children and the extent to which parents can determine what is in the best interests of the child are examined.

Chapter

G. T. Laurie, S. H. E. Harmon, and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses: the nature of the duty of care in the action for wrongful pregnancy; legal action for wrongful birth; wrongful (or diminished) life actions; and wrongful injury to the fetus and feticide.

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This chapter examines detention under the Mental Health Act 1983 of people who have not become involved with the criminal system. It shows that traditional justifications for detention have focused on dangerousness to self or others and the need for care and treatment. In recent years a new model has emerged, advocating the combination of mental capacity law and mental health law; and the new United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities also raises a whole new set of questions about compulsion and detention.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter first summarizes the rules governing experiments on animals and explains the meaning of ‘research’. It then examines: international ethical codes and the UK’s regulatory system; the role of ethics committees in authorizing and monitoring research; whether the benefits and burdens of research participation are evenly distributed; conflicts of interests and publication ethics; and compensation for injuries sustained as a result of participation in research.

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This chapter first summarizes the rules governing experiments on animals. It then examines international codes of research ethics and the UK’s regulatory system; the role of ethics committees in authorizing and monitoring research; whether the benefits and burdens of research participation are evenly distributed; conflicts of interests and publication ethics; and compensation for injuries sustained as a result of participation in research.

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This chapter examines the delivery of community care services. It discusses services for mentally disordered persons; the entitlement, nature, and scope of the duties owed under the National Health Service and Community Care Act (NHSCCA 1990); alternative mechanisms for securing services; and the use of personal budgets and direct payments. The chapter argues that most of the time, local social service authorities and National Health Service bodies do cooperate reasonably well in the delivery of community care services, particularly for service users with learning disabilities. The draft the Care and Support Bill holds the potential to radically simplify the legal framework in which community care services are delivered, making the system more transparent and intelligible to both users and professionals. The increased use of personal budgets and direct payments could empower service users in a way that has not been possible in the past.

Chapter

This chapter begins with brief descriptions of the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA) and the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA), and then discusses who the insane; the complex relationship between mental illness and medicine; the statutory definition of mental disorder and the scope of the MHA; mental health care; and sources of mental health law.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter first examines the ethical justifications for protecting patient confidentiality and then discusses: the different legal sources of the duty of confidence, including the new General Data Protection Regulation; exceptions to the duty of confidence; and the remedies available for its breach. It briefly considers patients’ rights to gain access to their medical records. Finally, the chapter covers the implications of ‘big data’ and machine learning for healthcare, and the increasing use of mobile technology in order to generate, store and transmit health data, known as mHealth.

Chapter

This chapter examines the legal and ethical aspects of medical confidentiality. The discussion include the legal basis of confidentiality; defences to claims of breach of confidentiality; the Data Protection Act 1998; legal remedies in confidentiality cases; patient access to their own health information; and ethical arguments for and against confidentiality. Underpinning this chapter is the tension between requiring that a patient’s confidences are kept and the fact that sometimes there is an overwhelming reason why confidentiality needs to be breached. A further difficulty for this topic is that once confidentiality has been breached it can be very difficult to formulate an effective legal remedy.

Chapter

This chapter examines the legal and ethical aspects of medical confidentiality. The discussion includes the legal basis of confidentiality; defences to claims of breach of confidentiality; the Data Protection Act 1998; legal remedies in confidentiality cases; patient access to their own health information; and ethical arguments for and against confidentiality. Underpinning this chapter is the tension between requiring that a patient’s confidences are kept and the fact that sometimes there is an overwhelming reason why confidentiality needs to be breached. A further difficulty for this topic is that once confidentiality has been breached it can be very difficult to formulate an effective legal remedy.