1-20 of 27 Results  for:

  • Study & Revision x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

2. Actus reus  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter reviews the actus reus elements of criminal offence. The actus reus consists of prohibited conduct (acts or omissions), prohibited circumstances, and/or prohibited consequences (results). A person can be criminally liable for omissions at common law, but imposing this liability can be controversial. Causation is a key part of consequence/result crimes. The prosecution must prove that the result was caused by the defendant. In order to do this, the chain of causation must first be established, and then consideration must be given to any intervention which might break the chain.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

1. The basis of criminal liability  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses what criminal liability is and is not about; the meaning of burden of proof; and the reform of criminal law. The study of criminal law is the study of liability. It is not about whether a person can be charged with a crime, or what sentence he may face if convicted, but rather it deals with whether a person is innocent or guilty of an offence (ie whether or not he can be convicted). The burden of proof means the requirement on a party to adduce sufficient evidence to persuade the fact-finder (the magistrates or the jury), to a standard set by law, that a particular fact is true.

Book

Cover Concentrate Q&A Criminal Law
The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and advice on study skills. This includes pitfalls to avoid in the caution sections; and tips for gaining extra marks in questions. Further reading is provided at the end of chapters. Concentrate Questions & Answers Criminal Law offers advice on what to expect in exams and how best to prepare. The book begins by looking at exam and study techniques and then moves on to consider the elements of a crime (including actus reus and mens rea), murder and manslaughter, non-fatal offences, and sexual offences. It then looks at a range of property offences, before exploring the defences in depth. The book concludes with a consideration of secondary participation and inchoate offences, a chapter on mixed questions, and a chapter on how to tackle coursework assessments.

Book

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Criminal Law Concentrate covers fundamental principles of this area of law and helps the reader to succeed in exams. Topics covered include the basis of criminal liability, actus reus, mens rea, and strict liability. The chapters also examine offences such as non-fatal offences, sexual offences, homicide, inchoate offences, theft, and fraud. Defences are also examined in the final two chapters. This edition has been updated to include: recent developments in the law and new cases such as Field, Grant, Rebelo, and Lawrance; more detail on sexual offences; and explanation of the new offence of strangulation.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Q&A Criminal Law

7. Defences  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and advice on study skills. This chapter presents sample exam questions focusing on the defences. The chapter covers the mental defences of insanity, automatism, and intoxication, as well as the compulsion defences of duress, necessity, and self-defence. Defences affecting the mental element can be quite similar, and there is considerable overlap. Therefore, questions on these defences need to be tackled technically and logically. The test for duress is tighter than in the past, and there is considerable debate over whether the defence of necessity exists at all.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

14. Defences I  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines the defences of age, insanity, automatism, intoxication, and mistake. If D is under the age of ten, he is deemed incapable of criminal liability. Insanity is where D proves he had a disease of mind which caused a defect of reason so that D did not know the nature and quality of his act or that it was wrong. Non-insane automatism is an assertion by D that the prosecution cannot prove the actus reus of the offence because D was not in control of his muscular movements. Intoxication rarely succeeds as a defence. Involuntary intoxication is a defence if D does not form mens rea. Voluntary intoxication is a defence only if D is charged with a specific intent crime and D did not form mens rea. Mistake is a defence provided the mistake prevents D forming mens rea.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

15. Defences II  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines the defences of consent, self-defence (which includes using reasonable force in the defence of oneself, defence of others, of property, and the prevention of crime), and duress (which consists of being compelled to commit a crime to avoid death or serious harm in a situation of immediacy where there is no route of escape). Duress is an excusatory defence; consent and self-defence are justificatory defences. If the defence of necessity does exist separately to the defence of duress, it is a justificatory defence.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Q&A Criminal Law

1. Exam Skills for Success in Criminal Law  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and advice on study skills. This introductory chapter provides an overview of the nature and complexities of the criminal law and the common features of all crimes such as actus reus, mens rea, and the defences. It outlines some techniques for achieving success in criminal law examinations. The chapter notes that to achieve success it is important to exercise good study skills from the outset and learn how to manage your time well. Relevance and structure are vital. Planning answers carefully, and providing critical analysis of the issues raised are essential.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

12. Fraud  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the crime of fraud. The offence of fraud is governed by the Fraud Act 2006. There is only one offence of fraud (s 1 Fraud Act 2006) with three ways of committing it, under ss 2–4. These are: by false representation, by failing to disclose information, and by abuse of position.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Q&A Criminal Law

2. Fundamental Principles of Criminal Liability—Actus Reus and Mens Rea  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and advice on study skills. This chapter presents sample exam questions on the elements of crime and suggested answers. The traditional starting point for the study of criminal law is the constituents of a criminal offence. These are the fundamental principles of criminal liability: actus reus (often referred to as the prohibited conduct, but more accurately described as the external elements of the offence) and mens rea (often referred to as the mental element, but more accurately described as the fault element). They include the distinction between acts and omissions, causation, and the different levels of fault (intention, recklessness and negligence).

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

7. Homicide I  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses murder, arguably the most serious crime in English law. Murder is where D kills V, and D intends to kill or intends to cause grievous bodily harm (GBH). The most common criticism of the offence of murder is that the sentence is mandatory irrespective of whether the mens rea is the more serious form (intent to kill) or the less serious form (intent to cause GBH). There were three partial defences to murder under the Homicide Act 1957 (diminished responsibility, provocation, and suicide pact). There are three partial defences to murder under the Homicide Act 1957 as amended and the Coroners and Justice Act 2009: diminished responsibility, loss of self-control, and suicide pact. The chapter considers the first two in detail. These are partial defences because they result in a conviction for manslaughter rather than a full acquittal.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

8. Homicide II  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. An unlawful homicide committed without the mens rea for murder is involuntary manslaughter. This chapter discusses the three classes of involuntary manslaughter: reckless manslaughter; unlawful act manslaughter; and gross negligence manslaughter. Both unlawful act manslaughter and gross negligence are notable for the low level of mens rea required. Indeed, with gross negligence manslaughter the defendant may not even have foreseen the risk of death and yet may still be convicted of manslaughter.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

9. Inchoate offences  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses inchoate offences. Inchoate offences are where the full offence is not completed. The reason why the law fixes liability on defendants who have not fulfilled the full offence is to punish those who are willing to be involved in criminality even where the full offence is not, for one reason or another, completed. The law governing all inchoate offences is in a state of flux; the common law offence of incitement was replaced with new offences under the Serious Crime Act 2007. The law governing conspiracy and attempts was the subject of a Law Commission Report in December 2009.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

3. Mens rea  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter reviews the mens rea elements of criminal offence. Mens rea means guilty mind, but the term is better thought of as the fault element of the offence. The role of mens rea is to attribute fault or blameworthiness (also called culpability) to the actus reus. The main types of mens rea are intention, recklessness, and negligence. Issues may arise when the mens rea and actus reus do not coincide in time. The doctrine of transferred malice allows mens rea to be transferred from the intended victim to the unintended victim, in certain situations.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Q&A Criminal Law

9. Mixed Questions  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and advice on study skills. This chapter presents sample exam questions on mixed topics. The styles adopted for criminal law examination questions can vary enormously. Some examiners will set problem questions that focus largely on one area, others will set mixed questions which cut right across the syllabus. A mixed question requires knowledge of a wide variety of often unrelated topics. There are some classic combinations such as sexual offences and offences against the person or murder/manslaughter, but candidates should be aware that some topics, such as defences and actus reus and mens rea are pervasive. Mixed questions will generally be of two types: (i) where candidates have to cover a vast number of issues briefly; (ii) where candidates need to cover some issues briefly, but others in some depth. This chapter presents examples of mixed questions and suggested answers. Some typical areas for combination are presented.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Q&A Criminal Law

3. Murder and Manslaughter  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and advice on study skills. This chapter presents sample exam questions on murder and manslaughter and suggested answers. The key issues of direct and oblique intent as it applies to murder are considered. The chapter also deals with the changes to the partial defences to murder (loss of control and diminished responsibility) brought about by the statutory provisions in the Coroners and Justice Act 2009, and the differences between the types of involuntary manslaughter (by an unlawful act, by gross negligence, and by recklessness).

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Q&A Criminal Law

4. Non-Fatal Offences Against the Person  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, suggested answers, author commentary, and advice on study skills. This chapter presents sample exam questions on non-fatal offences against the person and suggested answers. The questions cover all the typical offences against the person one would expect to find on a standard criminal law syllabus. The emphasis in this chapter is on the Offences Against the Person Act 1861, in particular ss 18, 20, and 47. Common law assault and battery are also covered. Self-defence and the common law defence of consent are also considered.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

5. Non-fatal offences against the person  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines the five principal non-fatal offences against the person: assault and battery (the common assaults) and the offences under ss 47, 20, and 18 Offences Against the Person Act 1861 (OAPA). The victim’s consent may negate the offence, but whether or not it does depends to a great extent on the type of crime, what the victim knows, the extent of the harm which is caused, and matters of public policy. Stalking and harassment may amount to a crime in certain circumstances. Four of the principal assaults are aggravated if the crime committed is motivated by religious or racial hatred.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

13. Other property offences  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter examines six offences: criminal damage, robbery, burglary, handling stolen goods, making off without payment, and squatting. What the offences share is that they relate in some way to property. Although rarely examined on their own, these topics are often assessed as part of bigger questions, sometimes incorporating other offences (eg theft, assault) and sometimes involving aspects of the general defences too.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law Concentrate

10. Participation  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the liability of parties who participate in the criminal acts of others. Liability can be split into four parts: those who are accessories, those who are joint perpetrators, those who are vicariously liable, and those who are corporations. Accessories are those who aid, abet, counsel, or procure the commission of the principal offence. Participants who enter a joint venture (also known as a joint unlawful enterprise) are liable for the crimes committed as part of that venture, unless one of the parties deliberately departs from the agreed plan. The doctrine of vicarious liability has a (limited) role in the criminal law. A corporation is a legal person, so criminal liability can be imposed on a corporation for many (although not all) crimes.