1-20 of 23 Results

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International society is first and foremost a society of individual sovereign states. However, states are by no means the only relevant actors in international law. In fact, one of the consequences of the post-1945 expansion of international law into areas that had traditionally been of limited international interest has been the increasing legal importance of a variety of non-state actors, most notably international organizations and individuals. This chapter introduces the various actors in the international legal system that possess rights, powers and obligations in international law. It provides a thorough presentation of statehood and the criteria for the creation of new states, and briefly discusses the (limited) legal significance of recognition. It discusses the modes by which a state can acquire title to new territory; the issues of state succession and state extinction; and the legal personality of territorial entities other than states, international organizations, individuals and additional actors in the international legal system.

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This chapter sets out the basic aims, themes, and structure of this book which are to provide an introductory account of the English legal system, to note how it has developed in recent years, and to consider how it may develop in future. Part II raises fundamental issues about the social functions of law and the legitimacy of law; and considers the institutional framework within which law is made. Part III looks at the different contexts in which law is developed and practised. Part IV looks at the provision and funding of legal services. Finally, Part V offers reflexions on a system in flux.

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Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter focuses on Article 10, one of the fundamental rights acknowledged in a liberal, democratic society—freedom of expression. Article 10 is a qualified right which reflects the idea that there can be important and legitimate reasons as to why freedom of expression may need to be restricted in order to protect other important rights and freedoms. While the first paragraph of Article 10 establishes a general right to freedom of expression, its second paragraph identifies the only bases upon which the right can be restricted. Restriction of the freedom of expression is subject to scrutiny by the courts, and its necessity must be established by the state. In particular the chapter discusses human rights in the context of political speech and the impact of restraints on hate speech.

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Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Central London Property Trust Ltd v High Trees House Ltd [1947] KB 130, King’s Bench Division. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

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This chapter analyses the essential characteristics of Equity. It identifies fourteen maxims that are useful and relevant today as guidelines for the operation of the equitable jurisdiction. The most important of the maxims are examined in some detail, namely that Equity is discretionary and is triggered by unconscionability. The meaning of discretion and the contemporary relevance of conscience and unconscionability are examined. Other maxims include that Equity will treat as done that which ought to be done and Equity responds to cynical conduct. This chapter explains the principles underlying these maxims and suggests that they are often subject to exceptions and sometimes it may even be necessary to redefine them to ensure that they are fit for purpose today.

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Paul S Davies and Graham Virgo

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses the charitable trust — its definition and the consequences of its failure. A charitable trust is defined as a public trust for purposes that provide a benefit to the public or a section of the public and is a trust subject to supervision by the Charity Commission. A trust is only considered charitable if it is established for a purpose that the law regards as charitable. The purposes of the trust must be wholly and exclusively charitable otherwise the trust will be void. The consequences of the charitable trust failing depend on whether the failure occurs initially or subsequently. If the purpose fails initially and the settlor had a general charitable intention, the trust property can be applied for a similar charitable purpose through the application of a body of rules known as the cy-pres doctrine. If the purpose fails subsequently the cy-pres doctrine will apply automatically.

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This chapter provides an overview of competition law and its economic context. Section 2 describes the practices that competition laws attempt to control in order to protect the competition process. Section 3 examines the theory of competition and gives an introductory account of why the effective enforcement of competition law is thought to be beneficial. Section 4 considers the goals of competition law. Section 5 introduces two key economic concepts, market definition and market power, that are important to a better understanding of competition policy. The chapter concludes with a table of market share figures that are significant in the application of EU and UK competition law, while reminding the reader that market shares are only ever a proxy for market power and can never be determinative of market power in themselves.

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Our survival on earth, this chapter argues, depends on the conservation of the world’s natural resources. These resources comprise of soil, water, the atmosphere, plants, trees, and other life forms. The chapter looks at the earth’s current ‘ecological footprint’ and the future of that ecological footprint as it stands now. There is now widespread scientific consensus that biodiversity is being lost, and that pressures on biodiversity are increasing. The chapter asks what we can do about this, in terms of international law. The chapter identifies how international law seeks to ensure the protection and conservation and sustainable use of nature, its ecosystems and biodiversity, and the effectiveness of measures developed to conserve land?based living resources, forests, and deserts.

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This chapter considers the extent to which individuals can and should be able to prevent others referring to them and their activities and, conversely, the extent to which individuals and companies should be able to commercialise and control a reputation that they have built up. The discussions cover the evolving right to personal privacy (through the tort of misuse of private information) and its base in human rights, particularly in respect of photographs; obtaining and dealing with trade marks in respect of well-known personalities; the relationship between passing off and endorsement and merchandising; and the extent to which individuals and businesses can and do control the use of their image through endorsement and sponsorship. The chapter also considers data protection, as well as the balancing of privacy and freedom of expression.

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This chapter explores aspects of the criminal law’s history. The main focus is the influence of religious—and, especially, biblical—thought on the criminal law. This influence does something to explain the law’s harsh attitude to theft and homosexuality, as well as to murder. Examination of efforts to codify the law is also included. This exploration is central to the analysis of how the past has shaped the criminal law’s values. However, the development of the law has not been one of continuous moral improvement. Old injustices have been replaced by new ones. In that regard, threats to civil liberties are also discussed in the final section, focusing on bureaucratic regulation, terrorism, and free speech.

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Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter focuses on different aspects of the bizarre common law dualist legal system, with its separate bodies of Common Law and Equitable rules. It describes the origins of common law dualism and then discusses the early distinguishing characteristics of Common Law and Equity. It then sets out the two main objectives of the text. The first is to expose Equity's impact on the modern legal landscape. The second objective is to expose the possibilities for coherent substantive integration of Common Law and Equity.

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Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. The common law provides the remedy of damages as of right for any breach. However, damages may not always provide a suitable or adequate remedy. One of the key equitable maxims states that ‘equity will not suffer a wrong without a remedy’. Therefore, over the years the courts have developed a number of equitable remedies to address the limitations of the common law response. This chapter considers the range of equitable remedies which have been developed by the courts: specific performance; injunctions; rescission; rectification; and account.

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This chapter addresses family provision, with particular reference to the Supreme Court’s decision in Ilott v The Blue Cross. Under the Inheritance (Provision for Family and Dependants) Act 1975, certain persons can apply for financial provision out of the deceased’s estate on the grounds that the deceased’s will or intestacy (or a combination of the two) does not make reasonable financial provision for the applicant. The persons entitled to apply are the deceased’s surviving spouse or civil partner, former spouses or civil partners who have not remarried or entered a subsequent civil partnership, children, children of the family, dependants, and cohabitants. The remainder of the chapter covers the powers of court to make orders; the ‘standards’ applicable to applicants and the ‘matters’ which the court must take into account in applications for an order under the 1975 Act; and anti-avoidance provisions of the 1975 Act.

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Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. The trust law that applies to family land might not be applicable to other types of land. Resulting trusts present a particular challenge in this regard. Although the doctrines of resulting trust have long been settled in the law of trusts, they have recently been questioned in the context of the family home. This chapter focuses on informal trusts of land and the social reasons why they are recognised, first looking at the problem of informality before turning to the different kinds of informal trusts of land. It also examines whether facts give rise to a resulting trust or a constructive trust, the practical significance of the distinction between constructive and resulting trusts of land, the relationship between proprietary estoppel and constructive trust, express agreement plus detrimental reliance, and the decision of the House of Lords in Stack v Dowden. The chapter concludes by considering some of the problems addressed by, and caused by, the operation of informal trusts in the context of cohabitation.

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This chapter examines the institutions of global governance responsible for formulating and implementing international environmental policy and law. It starts by defining global governance as a continuing process via which conflicting or diverse interests may be accommodated. This provides the environment where cooperative action may be taken. Global governance includes formal institutions and regimes empowered to enforce compliance, as well as informal arrangements. In this situation, there is no single model or form of global governance, nor is there a single structure or set of structures. Global governance, therefor, is a broad, dynamic, complex, process of interactive decision-making. The chapter also looks at the differences in international environmental policy and law today compared to when this book first published twenty-five years previously.

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Nicola Monaghan

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter begins by addressing the question: What is a crime? It then discusses the difference between criminal law, the law of tort, and contract law; the function of criminal law; sources of criminal law; the classification of offences; the criminal justice process; the hierarchy of the criminal courts; the burden and standard of proof; and the elements of an offence.

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This book focuses on intellectual property (IP) rights as they apply in the UK, including rights created by the EU. Legal systems around the world have seen fit to create these rights or causes of action to protect intangible concepts such as inventions, literature, brands, designs, and so on. It is said that IP protects the products of the mind, but that does not really apply to brand protection or to the protection of some types of information. As IP rights are so diverse, the theoretical bases for legal protection vary and are dealt with separately in their relevant chapters. However, there are some common approaches, namely, the neo-classical micro-economic theory, rights-based, and other approaches. Common legal topics are dealt with here as they affect more than one IP right. Particular issues flowing from them will be mentioned in the following chapters.

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All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses patent infringement, exceptions to infringement, and entitlement. Assessment of whether a patent has been infringed involves a three-stage process. First, the patent claims must be construed to see whether the defendant’s activities fall within the scope of the monopoly. Second, the infringing acts that the defendant is alleged to have carried out must be identified. Third, the applicability of exceptions to infringement must be considered. The chapter then focuses on three key exceptions to infringement within the Patents Act 1977: acts done for experimental purposes (‘experimental use’); acts done for private and non-commercial purposes (‘private use’); and the right to continue use begun before the priority date (‘prior use’). Finally, it considers persons entitled to the grant of a patent, including the role of artificial intelligence in inventorship.

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This chapter, which comments on the patent system, argues that while there is sufficient evidence to criticize the patent system, the mere fact that thousands of patents are granted annually suggests that all is not lost. Much of the law functions well and the time taken to grant a patent is a result of painstaking efforts to ensure that the invention fits in with the legal criteria. In so far as the patent system may be criticized, it is clearly having trouble getting to grips with ‘cutting edge’ issues, such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, and synthetic biology. The bottom line is that despite its imperfections, the patent system is a high-quality system involving detailed claims and their full examination.

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This chapter discusses some of the more relevant methods for peaceful dispute settlement. It begins by introducing a number of non-adjudicatory settlement mechanisms and providing a brief overview of the role played by the UN. It then discusses the adjudicatory means of settling disputes, including international arbitration; the competences and powers of the International Court of Justice; issues of access to the Court and the Court’s jurisdiction in contentious cases; the power of the Court to issue provisional measures; the effects of the Court’s decisions; the relationship between the Court and the UN Security Council; and the Court’s competence to issue advisory opinions.