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Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the four principal business structures in the UK, namely the sole proprietorship, ordinary partnership, limited liability partnership (LLP), and company. The LLP and the company are created via a process called incorporation and are therefore known as incorporated business structures or, as they are referred to in their respective statutes, as ‘bodies corporate’. The sole proprietorship and the ordinary partnership are not created via incorporation and so are known as unincorporated business structures.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the two principal types of capital that companies acquire: share capital (capital obtained by selling shares) and debt capital (capital borrowed from others). Having obtained share capital through the selling of shares, the law requires that the company ‘maintain’ that capital by not distributing it in unauthorized ways, notably by prohibiting companies from returning capital to the shareholders prior to liquidation.

Book

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Commercial Law Concentrate is supported by extensive online resources to take your learning further. It has been written by experts and covers all the key topics so you can approach your exams with confidence. The clear, succinct coverage enables you to quickly grasp the fundamental principles of this area of law and helps you to succeed in exams. This guide has been rigorously reviewed and is endorsed by students and lecturers for level of coverage, accuracy, and exam advice. It is clear, concise, and easy to use, helping you to get the most out of your revision. After an introduction to contracts of the sale of goods, the book covers: statutory implied terms; passing of property and risk; retention of title clauses; exclusion and limitation clauses; non-existence and perishing of goods; transfer of ownership by a non-owner; delivery, acceptance, and payment; remedies of the unpaid seller; remedies of the buyer; consumer credit; the creation of agency and the agent’s authority; and the relationships created by agency—the rights and liabilities of the parties.

Book

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Commercial Law Concentrate is supported by extensive online resources to take your learning further. It has been written by experts and covers all the key topics so you can approach your exams with confidence. The clear, succinct coverage enables you to quickly grasp the fundamental principles of this area of law and helps you to succeed in exams. This guide has been rigorously reviewed, and is endorsed by students and lecturers for level of coverage, accuracy, and exam advice. It is clear, concise, and easy to use, helping you get the most out of your revision. After an introduction to contracts for the sale of goods, the book covers: statutory implied terms; passing of property and risk; retention of title clauses; exemption and limitation clauses; non-existent and perishing of goods; transfer of ownership by a non-owner; delivery, acceptance, and payment; remedies of the unpaid seller; remedies of the buyer; consumer credit; the creation of agency and the agent’s authority; and the relationships created by agency—the rights and liabilities of the parties.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter considers the main legal forms used for businesses in the UK—particularly sole traders, general partnerships, limited liability partnerships (LLPs), and companies (public and private). It then examines how registered companies limited by shares come into existence. On registration a company becomes a legal person, separate from its shareholders and directors. This chapter explores this ‘corporate personality’ and the popular topic of when the ‘veil of incorporation’ can be lifted or pierced by statute or the courts.

Book

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Company Law Concentrate helps readers to consolidate knowledge in this area of law. This sixth edition has been fully updated and includes coverage of the 2018 UK Corporate Governance Code, the Wates Corporate Governance Principles, the UK Stewardship Code 2020, the Companies (Miscellaneous Reporting) Regulations 2018, and the reforms proposed following the consultation on insolvency and corporate governance. Case law updates include BAT Industries plc v Sequana SA [2019], Burnden Holdings (UK) Ltd v Fielding [2019], Popely v Popely [2019], and Vedanta Resources plc v Lungowe [2019]. Chapters examine business structures, incorporation, the constitution of the company, directors, members, corporate governance, capital and capital maintenance issues, members’ remedies, and corporate rescue and liquidation.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter explores important issues in company management and corporate governance, starting by examining the role of directors and shareholders (and the relationship between them) and the separation of ‘ownership and control’. Since the early 1990s, the governance of listed companies has been dominated by self-regulatory codes (currently the UK Corporate Governance Code). This chapter examines how these codes operate and considers key themes in corporate governance, including the role of non-executive directors and auditors; the position of institutional investors; and executive remuneration.

Book

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes: typical questions; suggested answers with commentary; illustrative diagrams; guidance on how to develop your answer; key debates; suggestions for further reading; and advice on exams and coursework. Concentrate Q&A Company Law offers expert advice on what to expect from your company law exam and coursework, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by an experienced examiner, it provides: reminders of points to consider; indications of key debates for each topic; exam-length suggested answers; clear commentary with each answer; diagram answer plans; cautionary points; tips to make your answer stand out from the crowd; and annotated further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical company law exam questions; structure and write a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; develop and demonstrate your understanding; identify connections between topics; and find relevant and helpful further reading. As well as separate chapters on exam skills and preparing coursework, it covers: companies and corporate personality; the corporate constitution; shares and shareholders; directors’ duties; company management and governance; minority shareholder remedies; corporate liability (contracts, torts, and crimes); share capital; loan capital; and corporate insolvency. The book is suitable for undergraduate students taking a module in company law on the LLB and GDL, and undergraduate students studying aspects of company law on other degreecourses.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the company constitution. A company’s constitution consists primarily of the articles of association and agreements and resolutions affecting the company’s constitution. The constitution forms a statutory contract between the company and its members, and between the members themselves, but only those provisions relating to membership rights will constitute terms of the statutory contract. A company can alter its articles by passing a special resolution, although statute and the common law restrict a company’s ability to alter its articles.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses some of the key common law and statutory provisions relating to consumer credit agreements and the common issues that arise. It first explains the provisions of the Consumer Credit Act 1974, as amended by the Consumer Credit Act 2006. The chapter then considers the rights of debtors who take credit under a ‘regulated agreement’, along with the (previous) extortionate credit bargain provisions that have been replaced by a test which considers whether there was an unfair relationship between the debtor and the creditor. It also considers consumer hire agreements, exempt agreements, small agreements, and non-commercial agreements as well as the liability of the creditor for the seller’s misrepresentation or breach of contract, retaking of protected goods, and the debtor’s right to complete payments ahead of time.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses some of the key common law and statutory provisions relating to consumer credit agreements and the common issues that arise. It first explains the provisions of the Consumer Credit Act 1974, as amended by the Consumer Credit Act 2006. The chapter then considers the rights of debtors who take credit under a ‘regulated agreement’, along with the (previous) extortionate credit bargain provisions that have been replaced by a test which considers whether there was an unfair relationship between the debtor and the creditor. It also considers consumer hire agreements, exempt agreements, small agreements, and non-commercial agreements, as well as the liability of the creditor for the seller’s misrepresentation or breach of contract, retaking of protected goods, and the debtor’s right to complete payments ahead of time.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter discusses the company’s constitution, which can be a popular area for examination questions. The chapter focuses on the company’s articles of association, considering in particular alteration of the articles and the legal effect of the articles (the ‘statutory contract’). The chapter also considers shareholder agreements, which are often used as a supplement to the company’s constitution.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the UK corporate governance system and some of the key corporate governance topics. It begins by looking at what corporate governance is and how the UK’s corporate governance system has evolved. The chapter then discusses the effectiveness of the ‘comply or explain’ approach. It also discusses a number of key corporate governance mechanisms, namely institutional investors, non-executive directors, and directors’ remuneration.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter examines the law on corporate insolvency. It considers the important and topical subject of corporate rescue, reviewing, in particular, administration and company voluntary arrangements. The chapter addresses several issues relating to liquidation, including: winding up petitions and the meaning of ‘inability to pay debts’; assets available to creditors; distribution of assets to creditors; priority of claims; the pari passu principle; and transaction avoidance (dispositions of property after the commencement of winding up, transactions at an undervalue, preferences, voidable floating charges, and transactions defrauding creditors). The potential liability of directors on a company’s insolvent liquidation is considered, concentrating on wrongful and fraudulent trading and disqualification.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter examines company contracts including: pre-incorporation contracts, the company’s capacity, directors’ authority, and restrictions on the powers of directors to bind the company. The chapter also considers liability of the company for tortious and criminal acts, including vicarious liability; attribution; and the particular area of corporate manslaughter and the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the various procedures available to companies experiencing financial difficulties that are so severe that the company’s survival is in jeopardy. It focuses on procedures that aim to help struggling companies (such as administration); help creditors recover monies owed (such as receivership); and commence the process of ending the company’s existence and provide for the distribution of its remaining assets (namely winding up).

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the creation of agency and its three main parties: the agent, the principal, and the third party. The primary purpose of the agent is to bring the principal and the third party into direct contractual relations, with the principal taking on the rights and liabilities created by the contracts provided the agent had authority to act. The chapter looks at several kinds of agent’s authority, including actual authority, apparent authority, and usual authority, and also considers agency of necessity as well as cases where the principal may ratify a transaction.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the creation of agency and its three main parties: the agent, the principal, and the third party. The primary purpose of the agent is to bring the principal and the third party into direct contractual relations, with the principal taking on the rights and liabilities created by the contracts, provided the agent had authority to act. The chapter looks at several kinds of agent’s authority, including actual authority, apparent authority, and usual authority, and also considers agency of necessity as well as cases where the principal may ratify a transaction.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the duty of the seller to deliver the goods, and the duty of the buyer to accept them and to pay the price. It first explains the meanings of delivery, acceptance, and payment as well as the provision in the Sale of Goods Act 1979 in respect of these matters, and then considers the distinction between consumer and business buyers and cases where the wrong quantity of goods has been delivered. The chapter also discusses delivery by instalments, delivery to a carrier, and the right of the buyer not to return rejected goods.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the duty of the seller to deliver the goods and the duty of the buyer to accept them and to pay the price. It first explains the meanings of delivery, acceptance, and payment as well as the provision in the Sale of Goods Act 1979 in respect of these matters, and then considers the distinction between consumer and business buyers and cases where the wrong quantity of goods has been delivered. The chapter also discusses delivery by instalments, delivery to a carrier, and the right of the buyer not to return rejected goods.