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Chapter

Disputes concerning title to land territory, including islands, and over the precise determination of boundaries are regularly the subject of international proceedings. While the occupation of territory not belonging to any state (terra nullius) is no longer a live issue, issues concerning such occupation in the past may still arise. This chapter discusses the following, the ‘modes’ of acquisition, displacement of title, territorial disputes, and territorial sovereignty and peremptory norms.

Chapter

International society is first and foremost a society of individual sovereign states. However, states are by no means the only relevant actors in international law. In fact, one of the consequences of the post-1945 expansion of international law into areas that had traditionally been of limited international interest has been the increasing legal importance of a variety of non-state actors, most notably international organizations and individuals. This chapter introduces the various actors in the international legal system that possess rights, powers and obligations in international law. It provides a thorough presentation of statehood and the criteria for the creation of new states, and briefly discusses the (limited) legal significance of recognition. It discusses the modes by which a state can acquire title to new territory; the issues of state succession and state extinction; and the legal personality of territorial entities other than states, international organizations, individuals and additional actors in the international legal system.

Chapter

International society is first and foremost a society of individual sovereign states. However, states are by no means the only relevant actors in international law. In fact, one of the consequences of the post-1945 expansion of international law into areas that had traditionally been of limited international interest has been the increasing legal importance of a variety of non-state actors, most notably international organizations and individuals. This chapter introduces the various actors in the international legal system that possess rights, powers and obligations in international law. It provides a thorough presentation of statehood and the criteria for the creation of new states, and briefly discusses the (limited) legal significance of recognition. It discusses the modes by which a state can acquire title to new territory; the issues of state succession and state extinction; and the legal personality of territorial entities other than states, international organizations, individuals and additional actors in the international legal system.

Book

Serving as a single-volume introduction to the field as a whole, Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law seeks to present international law as a system that is based on, and helps structure, relations among states and other entities at the international level. It aims to identify the constituent elements of that system in a clear way. This ninth edition has been completely updated to take account of the many developments in international law that have occurred since the 8th edition (2012).

Book

Martin Dixon, Robert McCorquodale, and Sarah Williams

Cases and Materials on International Law, a topical companion for study placing international law directly in the context of contemporary debate, offers broad coverage of international law, and is suitable for use alongside a range of course structures and teaching styles. The book provides readers with a comprehensive selection of case law extracts for their studies. Extracts have been chosen from a wide range of historical and contemporary cases to illustrate the reasoning processes of the courts and to show how legal principles are developed. The book contains the essential cases and materials needed in order to understand and analyse the international legal order, providing notes on selected extracts to explain the complexities of the law. The sixth edition provides expanded coverage of topical areas such as: the use of force in Iraq and Syria and the threat of terrorism; international criminal law and the International Criminal Court; and developments in human rights and international environmental law. The new edition considers the perspectives of non-western and feminist scholars. It also updates core areas of international law, including sovereignty over territory and judicial sovereignty, the law of the sea, state responsibility, international legal personality and peaceful settlement.

Book

Paola Gaeta, Jorge E. Viñuales, and Salvatore Zappalá

This book provides an authoritative account of international law. It preserves and extends Antonio Cassese’s exceptional combination of a historically informed, conceptually strong, and practice-infused analysis of international law, comparing the treatment of most issues in classical international law with the main subsequent developments of this constantly evolving field. Part I of the book covers the origins and foundations of the international community. Part II is about the subjects of the international community, including States, international organizations, individuals, and other international legal subjects. Part III examines the main processes of international law-making and the normative interactions between different norms, of both domestic and international law. Part IV studies the mechanisms of implementation of international law, including State responsibility, diplomatic and judicial means of dispute settlement, and enforcement mechanisms. Part V covers a number of areas which have undergone particular development and reached a high level of specialization, namely, UN law, the law governing the use of force, international humanitarian law, international human rights law, international criminal law, international environmental law, and international economic law (trade and investment).

Chapter

This chapter begins with an overview of the different forms of responsibility/liability in international law, and then focuses on the general character of State responsibility. The law of State responsibility deals with three general questions: (1) has there been a breach by a State of an international obligation; (2) what are the consequences of the breach in terms of cessation and reparation; and (3) who may seek reparation or otherwise respond to the breach as such, and in what ways? As to the first question, the chapter discusses the constituent elements of attribution and breach, as well as the possible justifications or excuses that may preclude responsibility. The second question concerns the various secondary obligations that arise upon the commission of an internationally wrongful act by a State, and in particular the forms of reparation. The third question concerns issues of invocation of responsibility, including the taking of countermeasures.

Chapter

This chapter considers preliminary issues, involving both jurisdiction and admissibility, before international courts and tribunals. It discusses prior negotiations, the requirement of a dispute, grounds of inadmissibility, diplomatic protection, and mixed claims.

Chapter

Paola Gaeta, Jorge E. Viñuales, and Salvatore Zappalà

The Cold War era prevented the UN Security Council from using most of the powers provided for by the UN Charter, including adopting measures under Chapter VII (the so-called ‘collective security system’ which provides for measures ranging from sanctions to the use of armed force) for events deemed (by the Security Council) to be threats to the peace, breaches of the peace, or acts of aggression. However, the end of the Cold War enabled the Security Council to take some of the measures short of force envisaged in Article 41 and to interpret creatively the provisions of the Charter so as to authorize enforcement action through the use of armed force by individual States or coalitions of States. This chapter discusses measures short of armed force; peacekeeping operations; resort to force by States, as well as regional and other organizations, upon authorization of the Security Council; the special case of authorization to use force given by the General Assembly; as well as the right to self-defence and the various situations in which armed force has been used unilaterally by States.

Chapter

This chapter discusses some legal issues that can arise in connection with the use of shared resources; the generation and use of energy and other uses of transboundary water resources; and other forms of transboundary co-operation, as well as issues specific to the polar regions and outer space.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the basis and character of state responsibility, attribution to the state, breach of an international obligation, and circumstances precluding wrongfulness. This chapter focuses on the articulation of the law of responsibility through the ILC’s Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts.

Chapter

In the event of an internationally wrongful act by a state or other subject of international law, other states or subjects may be entitled to respond. This may be done by invoking the responsibility of the wrongdoer, seeking cessation and/or reparation, or (if no other remedy is available) possibly by taking countermeasures. This chapter discusses international law governing cessation, reparation, invocation.

Chapter

Nigel D White and Ademola Abass

This chapter focuses on the issue of enforcement by means of non-forcible measures. Two legal regimes are considered: non-forcible countermeasures taken by States (countermeasures) and non-forcible measures taken by international organizations (sanctions). Discussions cover emergence of a restricted doctrine of countermeasures as the modern acceptable form of self-help; partial centralization of coercion in international organizations; problems within each of these regimes along with limitations placed upon their application; coexistence of countermeasures based on a traditional view of international relations, alongside post-1945 development of centralized institutional responses. State and institutional practices that lie between the basic right of a State to take countermeasures to remedy an internationally wrongful act, and the power of international organizations to impose sanctions in certain circumstances are discussed. Finally, the legality of continued use by States of non-forcible reprisals, retorsion, and wider forms of economic coercion; and collective countermeasures imposed either multilaterally or institutionally are considered.

Chapter

The state is the central type of legal person recognized by international law. Yet, since there are other legal persons so recognized, the possession of legal personality is not in itself a sufficient mark of statehood. This chapter discusses the legal criteria of statehood, some issues of statehood, secession and self-determination, and identity and continuity of states.

Chapter

The rules of international law governing diplomatic relations are the product of long-established state practice reflected in treaties, national legislation, and judicial decisions, as codified in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. This chapter discusses the general legal aspects of diplomatic relations; staff, premises, and facilities of missions; inviolability of missions; diplomatic agents; consular relations; special missions; and crimes against internationally protected persons.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the notion of ‘diplomatic protection’, or the idea that a State may espouse the claims of its nationals and claim on their behalf. Because diplomatic protection by a State to persons necessarily extends beyond its territory, its exercise has potential ramifications for the sovereignty of other States. Certain rules have therefore emerged to avoid the uncomfortable situation where States submit legal claims as a strategic tool in international relations. Many of these are reflected in the Articles on Diplomatic Protection proposed by the International Law Commission (ILC) in 2006. In such situations, even if locus standi or ‘standing’ can be established, the admissibility of a claim before an international tribunal is precluded. The chapter then studies the rules relating to the admissibility of claims of diplomatic protection.

Chapter

Paola Gaeta, Jorge E. Viñuales, and Salvatore Zappalà

This chapter analyses the enforcement of international law by States acting individually, that is, decentralized enforcement, including by their courts, as well as through retortion or countermeasures (once called reprisals). This is the typical form of enforcement under traditional international law. At the same time, enforcement might take place through measures taken by States acting collectively, that is, through mechanisms that include resort to collective measures, such as those adopted at the UN level (or within other international organizations), which can lead to collective sanctions. The first form of enforcement looks at the traditional law governing retortion and reprisals or countermeasures (as they are now called), as well as at the post-1945 law, taking into account that the ban on the use of armed force in international relations imposes that all enforcement measures taken by States individually must be peaceful. The second form examines the issue of collective sanctions, such as those taken at UN level.

Chapter

This chapter first summarizes traditional law on two main grounds: this body of law has not been completely superseded, let alone obliterated, by the new law; it is impossible to fully grasp the purport of the current law without knowing the fundamentals of traditional law. It then discusses new trends following the First World War; enforcement of international rules in modern international law; retortion; and collective enforcement.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on enforcement short of force in international law, particularly studying countermeasures, the primary measures available to States in order to induce compliance of wrongdoers with their international obligations. In the last decades, there has been the codification and attempted development by the ILC, in the Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA) of an international regime regulating countermeasures. To characterize an act as a ‘countermeasure’ is to concede its illegality in normal circumstances: by definition, countermeasures are acts which are ‘intrinsically unlawful, but are justified by the alleged initial failing to which they were a response’. Countermeasures may not in any case involve the use of armed force. The chapter also discusses the category of reprisals, the so-called ‘acts of retorsion’, and sanctions.

Chapter

This chapter begins with a brief discussion of the concept of territory. It explains key terms and distinctions, including sovereignty and jurisdiction, sovereignty and ownership, sovereignty and administration, and ‘sovereign rights’ beyond state territory. This is followed by discussions of territorial administration separated from state sovereignty and restrictions on disposition of territory.