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Chapter

This chapter addresses the issues and arguments surrounding access to justice. The chapter considers the recent reforms and proposed changes to legal aid provision. There is an outline of the basic principles relating to public funding in both civil and criminal cases. Different methods of funding civil legal representation are discussed including CFAs and DBAs. Organisations involved in giving legal advice on a pro bono basis, including Citizens Advice Bureaux and law centres, are also included. in the discussion about the availability of legal advice. The chapter aims to stimulate thought about the idea of access to justice and whether such access is fair and open to all in England and Wales.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on how legal services, in particular litigation, to the less well off and the poor are paid for. It considers first the radically changed shape of the legal aid scheme and publicly funded legal services in recent years and then discusses the developments designed to control the costs of litigation. It summarizes new ideas for the funding of litigation and improving access to justice. It considers the contribution of the legal profession and approaches to re-engineering the system, finally asking whether new processes—alternatives to the courts—might be better at providing cost effective and proportionate dispute resolution services.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on administrative justice. It reflects on the nature of administrative law and the role it plays in modern society, overseeing the relationship between the citizen and the state. Again adopting the holisitic approach, the chapter discusses not only the role of the courts, but also the tribunals, ombudsmen, and other bodies and processes that together make up the institutional framework of administrative justice. It notes some of the key changes being introduced as a result of the current transformation programme. It also considers the particular responsibilities of Members of Parliament in holding government to account. In addition, it asks who has general oversight of the system and whether current oversight arrangements are adequate.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on administrative justice. It reflects on the nature of administrative law and the role it plays in modern society, overseeing the relationship between the citizen and the state. Once again adopting the holisitic approach, the chapter discusses not only the role of the courts, but also the tribunals, ombudsmen, and other bodies and processes that together make up the institutional framework of administrative justice. It notes some of the key changes being introduced as a result of the Transformation Programme and the response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It also considers the particular responsibilities of Members of Parliament in holding the Government to account. In addition, it asks who has general oversight of the system and whether current oversight arrangements are adequate.

Chapter

This chapter sets out the basic aims, themes, and structure of this book which are to provide an introductory account of the English legal system, to note how it has developed in recent years, and to consider how it may develop in future. Part II raises fundamental issues about the social functions of law and the legitimacy of law; and considers the institutional framework within which law is made. Part III looks at the different contexts in which law is developed and practised. Part IV looks at the provision and funding of legal services. Finally, Part V offers reflexions on a system in flux.

Chapter

This chapter sets out the basic aims, themes, and structure of this book. The book provides an introductory account of the English legal system, how it has developed in recent years, and how it may develop in future. Part II raises fundamental issues about the social functions of law and the legitimacy of law; and considers the institutional framework within which law is made. Part III looks at the different context in which law is developed and practised. Part IV looks at the delivery and funding of legal services. Part V returns to the theme of transformation and the challenges to be faced.

Chapter

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) describes any method of resolving legal disputes other than through litigation in the ordinary courts or tribunals. ADR includes methods such as arbitration, mediation, adjudication, conciliation, med-arb, and early neutral evaluation/expert determination. This chapter explains why ADR in general exists, its many advantages (compared to litigation) as well as its disadvantages, and the differences between the various forms of ADR. The chapter examines the case law over the last fifteen years on the ‘cost consequences’ of a failure by one party to a legal dispute to engage in ADR when presented with the opportunity to do so. The chapter considers whether ADR should ever be made compulsory and the extent to which the parties to a dispute, having agreed to resolve their dispute through ADR, can be compelled to honour that agreement.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter considers alternative dispute resolutions (ADR), which are ways that a dispute can be settled outside of the court process. The chapters considers the growth of ADR and how the courts now require litigants to consider ADR before commencing legal action. The courts have wide powers to encourage ADR and this chapter considers these powers and why the courts try to encourage ADR. The key forms of ADR are then presented, together with an analysis of their strengths and weaknesses.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter considers alternative dispute resolutions (ADR), which are ways that a dispute can be settled outside of the court process. The chapters considers the growth of ADR and how the courts now require litigants to consider ADR before commencing legal action. The courts have wide powers to encourage ADR and this chapter considers these powers and why the courts try to encourage ADR. The key forms of ADR are then presented, together with an analysis of their strengths and weaknesses.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the civil and commercial justice systems. It considers the purpose of the civil justice system and also covers the use of alternative dispute resolution and the incentives to keep disputes out of the court. It looks at the court structure, the county court, the High Court, the newly created Business and Property Courts of England and Wales, and other courts and offices. It considers possible changes that may follow the courts and tribunals transformation project. It also considers routes of appeal and the work of the appeal courts.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the civil and commercial justice systems. It considers the purpose of the civil justice system and also covers the use of alternative dispute resolution and the incentives to keep disputes out of the court. It looks at the court structure, the county court, the High Court, the newly created Business and Property Courts of England and Wales, and other courts and offices. It considers possible changes that may result from the Transformation programme and the civil and commercial justice systems’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It also considers routes of appeal and the work of the appeal courts.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter considers the conduct of civil litigation. It discusses how civil litigation is more managed than criminal litigation and the courts seek to assist litigants in finding a compromise. The civil courts have extensive powers over costs and they use this to ensure compliance with their rulings and also to encourage early settlement, reducing the need for litigation. The chapter examines three types of civil litigation; cases relating to the small claims track (‘small claims court’), judicial review, and private family-law disputes.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter considers the conduct of civil litigation. It discusses how civil litigation is more managed than criminal litigation and the courts seek to assist litigants in finding a compromise. The civil courts have extensive powers over costs and they use this to ensure compliance with their rulings and also to encourage early settlement, reducing the need for litigation. The chapter examines three types of civil litigation; cases relating to the small-claims track (‘small claims court’), judicial review and private family-law disputes.

Chapter

This chapter is a general introduction to civil litigation and the civil courts. It describes the process by which a civil claim is dealt with in the County Court or in the High Court. It provides an overview of the major case management powers possessed by the civil courts and discusses how these powers must be exercised to further the overriding objective of the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (as amended) to deal with matters justly and at proportionate cost. A brief history of the development of the civil court rules is included and the Woolf and Jackson Reports are discussed. Some of the basic principles of civil evidence are discusses and the methods of enforcement of civil judgments are set out.

Chapter

This chapter introduces readers to the appeals process in criminal and civil cases. It explores the grounds upon which appeals may be based in criminal cases, including the concepts of ‘fresh evidence’ and ‘lurking doubt’ and considers appeals by way of case stated, applications for judicial review of decisions, and Attorney General’s references. If a criminal appeal has been dismissed, the Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC), which was set up to examine potential miscarriages of justice, may refer a case back to the appeal court in certain circumstances. The chapter highlights some of the criticisms of the CCRC’s role and effectiveness. The avenues of appeal in civil cases are also discussed, including leapfrog appeals and second appeals.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter examines under what circumstances someone is entitled to appeal and how that appeal is heard. The discussions cover summary trials or trials on indictment; appeals from a summary trial; appeal from a trial on indictment; appeal following an acquittal; appeal against sentence; appeals to the Supreme Court; and the Criminal Cases Review Commission. The paths of appeals differ depending on the mode of trial of the original criminal hearing. There are two potential criminal appeal avenues from a summary trial: either to the Divisional Court (by way of case stated or (exceptionally) judicial review) or to the Crown Court. An appeal ordinarily requires leave (permission) but appealing to the Crown Court from the magistrates’ court does not require leave.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter examines under what circumstances someone is entitled to appeal and how that appeal is heard. The discussions cover summary trials or trials on indictment; appeals from a summary trial; appeal from a trial on indictment; appeal following an acquittal; appeal against sentence; appeals to the Supreme Court; and the Criminal Cases Review Commission. The paths of appeals differ depending on the mode of trial of the original criminal hearing. There are two potential criminal appeal avenues from a summary trial: either to the Divisional Court (by way of case stated or (exceptionally) judicial review) or to the Crown Court. An appeal ordinarily requires leave (permission) but appealing to the Crown Court from the magistrates’ court does not require leave.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on the criminal justice system. It contains summaries of the different social theories that underpin both the criminal justice system and the fundamental principles relating to sentencing policy. The system is examined in three segments: pre-trial stages, trial stage, and post-trial stages. Each is discussed in turn. This chapter emphasizes the holistic approach by looking not only at what happens in courts, but also the police station and in post-trial contexts such as parole and criminal cases review. The place of the victim in the system is also considered. Particular emphasis is placed on how the current system is changing in the quest for improved efficiency.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on the criminal justice system. It contains summaries of the different social theories that underpin both the criminal justice system and the fundamental principles relating to sentencing policy. The system is examined in three segments: pre-trial stages, trial stage, and post-trial stages. Each is discussed in turn. This chapter emphasizes the holistic approach by looking not only at what happens in courts, but also the police station and in post-trial contexts such as parole and criminal cases review. The place of the victim in the system is also considered. Attention is given to the need to improve the criminal justice system.

Chapter

This chapter explains what happens once a person has been charged with a criminal offence. Whether a case remains in the magistrates’ court or is sent to the Crown Court depends on whether the offence is ‘summary only’, ‘indictable only’, or ‘triable either way’. Summary trial takes place before a district judge or bench of lay justices in the magistrates’ court. Trial on indictment takes place before a jury in the Crown Court. An offence that is triable either way may be allocated to the Crown Court or, if it is suitable for summary trial, the defendant may nevertheless choose Crown Court trial. Criminal proceedings are governed by the Criminal Procedure Rules (CrimPR), whose overriding objective is to deal with cases justly, including acquitting the innocent and convicting the guilty. The chapter considers those parts of the CrimPR that set out the steps to be taken before a trial in both the magistrates’ court and the Crown Court, including decisions relating to bail. It also explores key evidential and procedural rules that apply at trial, such as rules governing the disclosure of material in the possession of the prosecution and the rule that the prosecution bears the burden of proving a defendant’s guilt beyond reasonable doubt.