This chapter focuses on key questions in penal policy, including justice, risk management, and human rights. It also considers the principal factors which shape the development of penal policy. Notably, these are political imperatives, economic influences, and penological and criminological principles, as well as public opinion and the media, which have become much more influential since the early 1990s. Recent penal policy developments to highlight significant trends and problems are discussed, including the impact of the pandemic. The chapter concludes by focusing on the management of sex offenders and providing a case study and discussion questions for further reflection on the issues.