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Principles of Banking Law

Principles of Banking Law (3rd edn)

Sir Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zwieten, Christopher Hare, and Theodor van Sante
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date: 03 October 2023

p. 41514. Lendinglocked

p. 41514. Lendinglocked

  • Ross Cranston, Ross CranstonProfessor of Law at the London School of Economics
  • Emilios Avgouleas, Emilios AvgouleasProfessor of International Banking Law and Finance at the University of Edinburgh; European Banking Authority Stakeholder Group
  • Kristin van Zweiten, Kristin van ZweitenClifford Chance Associate Professor of Law and Finance at Oxford University and a Fellow of Harris Manchester College
  • Theodor van SanteTheodor van SanteBarrister at 3 Verulam Building, Gray's Inn, London
  •  and Christoper HareChristoper HareTravers Smith Associate Professor of Corporate and Commercial Law at the University of Oxford and a Fellow of Somerville College


This chapter considers lending in liberalized markets, where banks enjoy greater autonomy in their choice of borrower, the terms on which they lend, and the exercise of remedies on a borrower's default. It focuses on commercial lending by banks, and thus does not consider the additional issues that arise in relation to consumer lending. Commercial lending by banks can take various forms. Bankers often use the generic term ‘facility’ to describe them all. The most basic is the term loan, where a specified maturity date sets the time for ultimate repayment. The chapter discusses the negotiation of the agreement for commercial loan facilities; the facility and its repayment; conditions precedent, representations and warranties, covenants; the negative pledge and pari passu clauses; and default.

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