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The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (7th edn)

Alison Liebling, Shadd Maruna, and Lesley McAra
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date: 22 May 2024

p. 31114. Demystifying hate crime in an age of criseslocked

p. 31114. Demystifying hate crime in an age of criseslocked

  • Neil Chakraborti
  •  and Amy Clarke


This chapter examines the extent of hate crimes in the age of crises. It acknowledges how the concept of hate crime is notoriously complex and contested. The continued rise of hate incidents paints a worrying picture of seemingly legitimized hostile and prejudiced attitudes rooted within wider structural inequalities. Even though ne and physical hostility is normalized, legitimized, and politically weaponized, there is a deafening silence from national governments when it comes to addressing the underlying causes of hate crime. The chapter considers the complex realities of perpetration and victimization in an effort to improve responses to hate crime in times of increasing fragility and uncertainty.

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