A state is not responsible for every act or omission which harms human rights, regardless of the perpetrator or the location. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the scope of application of a state’s obligations under international human rights law. That is, when do human rights duties apply? This chapter first defines key concepts and identifies the duty-bearers and beneficiaries of human rights law. Then it explains the instances in which a state will be held responsible for the actions or omissions of particular persons or entities. Finally, it addresses the territorial scope of a state’s human rights duties.