- Jonathan HerringJonathan HerringProfessor of Law, Exeter College, University of Oxford
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter reviews the actus reus elements of criminal offence. The actus reus consists of prohibited conduct (acts or omissions), prohibited circumstances, and/or prohibited consequences (results). A person can be criminally liable for omissions at common law, but imposing this liability can be controversial. Causation is a key part of consequence/result crimes. The prosecution must prove that the result was caused by the defendant. In order to do this, the chain of causation must first be established, and then consideration must be given to any intervention which might break the chain.