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Immigration & Asylum Law

Immigration & Asylum Law (9th edn)

Gina Clayton and Georgina Firth
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date: 27 September 2023

p. 43512. Claims for international protectionlocked

p. 43512. Claims for international protectionlocked

  • Gina Clayton,
  • Georgina Firth, Georgina FirthSenior Lecturer, University of Lancaster
  • Caroline SawyerCaroline SawyerBarrister and Solicitor, Hutt City Law
  •  and Rowena MoffattRowena MoffattBarrister, Doughty Street Chambers


This chapter examines the requirements for refugee status, according to Article 1A of the UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1951 and the Refugee Qualification Directive EC 2004/83, referred to as the Qualification Directive. This includes case law on the main concepts in refugee law: well-founded fear, persecution, Convention reason, causal link, and internal relocation. There is a focus on the particular problems in gender-based claims. The chapter considers protection for victims of trafficking, who may go through a parallel process to the asylum system. The chapter begins with the legal context of refugee claims in the UK, and then follows the structure of Article 1A of the Refugee Convention.

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