- D Fox, D FoxProfessor of Common Law, University of Edinburgh
- RJC Munday, RJC MundayReader Emeritus in Law, University of Cambridge
- B Soyer, B SoyerProfessor of Commercial and Maritime Law, Institute of International Shipping and Trade Law, Swansea University
- AM TettenbornAM TettenbornChair in Law, Swansea University
- and PG TurnerPG TurnerVisiting Senior Fellow of the Melbourne Law School
This chapter focuses on the creation of the principal–agent relationship and the authority of the agency and the four ways of creating it: through an express or implied agreement between the principal and the agent; under the doctrine of apparent authority; by operation of law; and through ratification of an unauthorised agent’s acts by the principal. Agency arising out of agreement will always be consensual, but it need not be contractual. After explaining how the agency relationship is created, the chapter examines the authority of the agent such as actual authority, apparent authority, and usual authority.