Show Summary Details
Sealy and Hooley's Commercial LawText, Cases, and Materials

Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law: Text, Cases, and Materials (6th edn)

David Fox, Roderick Munday, Baris Soyer, Andrew Tettenborn, and Peter Turner
Page of

Printed from Oxford Law Trove. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 13 April 2024

p. 71321. The financing of international tradelocked

p. 71321. The financing of international tradelocked

  • D Fox, D FoxProfessor of Common Law, University of Edinburgh
  • RJC Munday, RJC MundayReader Emeritus in Law, University of Cambridge
  • B Soyer, B SoyerProfessor of Commercial and Maritime Law, Institute of International Shipping and Trade Law, Swansea University
  • AM TettenbornAM TettenbornChair in Law, Swansea University
  •  and PG TurnerPG TurnerVisiting Senior Fellow of the Melbourne Law School


This chapter examines the methods used to finance international trade. The method chosen will in practice greatly depend on the seller’s confidence in the integrity and solvency of the buyer, as well as on the bargaining strengths of the respective parties. The chapter discusses the traditionally most common methods of payment, such as documentary bills, documentary credits, standby credits, performance bonds, and guarantees, together with more modern developments such as Bank Payment Obligations or BPOs. The coverage also includes other financing methods such as forfaiting and financial leasing before concluding with an overview of export credit guarantees.

You do not currently have access to this chapter

Sign in

Please sign in to access the full content.


Access to the full content requires a subscription