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Evidence ConcentrateLaw Revision and Study Guide

Evidence Concentrate: Law Revision and Study Guide (6th edn)

Maureen Spencer and John Spencer
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date: 30 September 2023

p. 102. Burden of prooflocked

p. 102. Burden of prooflocked

  • Maureen SpencerMaureen SpencerAssociate Professor of Law Middlesex University
  •  and John SpencerJohn SpencerBarrister


This chapter focuses on the burden of proof and presumption of innocence in criminal and civil cases under Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It considers the influence of the UK’s Human Rights Act 1998 on the allocation of the burden of proof and compares legal/persuasive burden of proof with the evidential burden. It contains a detailed examination of the case law under this Act and the criteria developed to assess where reverse burdens should apply. It draws on academic commentary in making this analysis. It also looks at situations where the legal and the evidential burden may be split. It concludes with an overview of the law on presumptions.

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