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The Oxford Textbook on Criminology

The Oxford Textbook on Criminology (2nd edn)

Steve Case, Phil Johnson, David Manlow, Roger Smith, and Kate Williams
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date: 03 June 2023

p. 802p. 80327. Crime controllocked

p. 802p. 80327. Crime controllocked

  • Steve Case,
  • Phil Johnson,
  • David Manlow,
  • Roger Smith
  •  and Kate Williams


This chapter reflects on the crime control approach. Criminologists and criminal justice practitioners who adopt this standpoint accept that crime is inevitable; but they are also committed to minimising its effects, either by restricting opportunities to offend or by acting decisively where crimes are committed. Crime control and retributive interventions may well coincide, despite their differing motivations, for example in the case of imprisonment. But crime control also extends well beyond deterrent sanctions to include other measures geared towards the assessment and management of potential risks, target hardening, proactive policing, offender surveillance, and restrictions. The chapter then looks at the role of the police in crime control including zero tolerance, intelligence-led policing, and community policing as well as the role of other agencies, such as architects, the community, private security providers, and the judiciary. It considers how predictive tools might be used to minimise the risk of reoffending and assesses some of the impacts and outcomes of crime control strategies.

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