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European Intellectual Property Law

European Intellectual Property Law (2nd edn)

Justine Pila and Paul Torremans
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date: 27 May 2024

p. 37915. Infringement and Revocation of the Trade Marklocked

p. 37915. Infringement and Revocation of the Trade Marklocked

  • Justine PilaJustine PilaFellow and Senior Law Tutor of St Catherine’s College, Oxford; Research Fellow of the Institute of European and Comparative Law, Faculty of Law, University of Oxford
  •  and Paul L.C. TorremansPaul L.C. TorremansProfessor of Intellectual Property Law, University of Nottingham


This chapter considers EU law on trade mark infringement. The basic criteria for an infringement action are established by Article 5 of the Trade Mark Directive and Article 9 of the Trade Mark Regulation. If a mark is already on the register, it is an infringement to use the same mark for the same goods or services. If either, or both, of the two marks and the product in question are similar rather than identical, there will be an infringement if the later use of the earlier mark is likely to cause confusion to the public. Finally, unauthorized use of an identical or a similar mark, even on totally different goods, will also be an infringement if the repute of the original mark would be harmed by such a use. The remainder of the chapter deals with the three main paragraphs on infringement, Articles 5(1)(a), (b) and (2) in the Directive and Article 9(1)(a), (b) and (c) of the Regulation respectively, each of which deal with a different form of trade mark infringement. This is followed by discussions of exceptions to infringement and the revocation and invalidity of trade marks.

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