- Ian J. LloydIan J. LloydFormerly Senior Specialist, HSU, National Research University, Russian Federation and Visiting Professor, Open University of Tanzania
This chapter examines key forms of computer related crimes. Computer fraud is a topic that attracts much legal and media attention. As the name suggests, it is essentially a variant of well-established principles of this area of the law. If a perpetrator obtains funds belonging to a victim through some form of deception or manipulation, this will be considered criminal with the most significant legal issues being concerned with the question when or where an offence has occurred. The deliberate promulgation of computer viruses or malware is also generally regarded as a criminal offence although there are issues regarding the degree of intent that needs to be established to secure a conviction. Viruses are generally spread through the conduct of individuals other than those who create to program. Conduct might be characterized as negligent rather than deliberate and will generally not be criminal. Similar issues of intent and knowledge may arise in respect of other forms of conduct such as denial of service attacks.