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Intellectual Property Law

Intellectual Property Law (5th edn)

Lionel Bently, Brad Sherman, Dev Gangjee, and Phillip Johnson
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date: 28 September 2023

p. 2269. Defenceslocked

p. 2269. Defenceslocked

  • L. Bently, L. BentlyHerchel Smith Professor of Intellectual Property, University of Cambridge
  • B. Sherman, B. ShermanProfessor of Law, University of Queensland
  • D. GangjeeD. GangjeeAssociate Professor of Intellectual Property Law, University of Oxford
  •  and P. JohnsonP. JohnsonProfessor of Commercial Law, Cardiff University


This chapter deals with the exceptions that a person may invoke in defence when sued for copyright infringement. Most of these exceptions are referred to as ‘permitted acts’ in Chapter III of Part 1 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA 1988). The chapter begins by introducing six concepts that feature in many of the exceptions set out in the CDPA 1988: fair dealing, non-commercial use and not-for-profit users, lawful use, sufficient acknowledgment, relationship with contract, and dealings with copies made under exceptions. It then cites exceptions relating to personal copying for private use; non-commercial research or private study; text and data analysis; criticism or review; disclosure in the public interest; uses of works for people with disabilities; public administration; databases, computer programs, and electronic programs; and artistic works and broadcasts. A section on miscellaneous defences concludes the chapter.

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