- L. Bently, L. BentlyHerchel Smith Professor of Intellectual Property, University of Cambridge
- B. Sherman, B. ShermanProfessor of Law, University of Queensland
- D. GangjeeD. GangjeeAssociate Professor of Intellectual Property Law, University of Oxford
- and P. JohnsonP. JohnsonProfessor of Commercial Law, Cardiff University
This chapter deals with trade mark infringement, as set out in sections 10(1)-(3) of the Trade Marks Act 1994 and Article 9 of the European Union Trade Marks Regulation (EUTMR). It first outlines a non-exhaustive list of the situations in which a person uses a sign, such as affixing the sign to the goods or to the packaging; importing or exporting goods under the sign; or using the sign on business papers or in advertising. It then discusses how the claimant’s and defendant’s marks may be identified for comparison purposes, and the range of situations in which an infringement claim is viable, including import or export and use on the Internet. Finally, it examines the functions of a trade mark, commencing with the ‘origin’ function. It concludes by considering secondary or accessory liability for trade mark infringement, especially relevant for Internet platforms.