p. 202. Theories and models of police and policing
- Benjamin Bowling, Benjamin BowlingProfessor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Kings College London
- Robert ReinerRobert ReinerEmeritus Professor of Criminology, The London School of Economics and Political Science
- and James SheptyckiJames SheptyckiProfessor of Criminology, York University, Toronto, Canada
The chapter outlines seven ideal-typical models for thinking about the politics of police. The models are not mutually exclusive and can be combined to form complex descriptions of theoretical relations. They rest on a variety of conceptual distinctions. Crime control and due process; high and low policing; police force and police service; organizational structure and officer discretion; state, market, and civil society; police knowledge work, investigation and intelligence; and the democratic, authoritarian, and totalitarian politics of policing are all discussed. The police métier is discussed a set of habits and assumptions that envisions only the need to control, deter, and punish. It has evolved around the practices of tracking, surveillance, keeping watch and unending vigilance, and the application of force, up to and including fatal force. The chapter concludes that these seven models for thinking about police and policing facilitate micro-, meso-, and macro-level analysis.