- Benjamin Bowling, Benjamin BowlingProfessor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Kings College London
- Robert ReinerRobert ReinerEmeritus Professor of Criminology, The London School of Economics and Political Science
- and James SheptyckiJames SheptyckiProfessor of Criminology, York University, Toronto, Canada
The concluding chapter pulls together the implications of the earlier chapters of this book for an assessment of where policing is heading, and what is to be done to achieve greater effectiveness, fairness, and justice. It seeks to answer eight specific questions: What is policing? Who does it? What do police do? What are police powers? What social functions do they achieve? How does policing impact on different groups? By whom are the police themselves policed? How can policing practices be understood? It considers technological, cultural, social, political, economic changes and their implications for crime, order, and policing. It also examines the multifaceted reorientation of police thinking, especially shifts in the theory and practice of policing in the 1990s that included the rhetoric of consumerism. The chapter considers the limits of police reform and the implications of neo-liberalism for the police before concluding with a call for policing based on the principles of social democracy.