This chapter considers human rights protection across the Americas, and focuses in particular on the Organization of American States (OAS). The chapter begins with a historical overview of the OAS. The OAS has drafted and promulgated several human rights documents and treaties, including the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man and the American Convention on Human Rights, as well as others. Having introduced the main instruments for the protection the chapter then considers the two main OAS institutions that are mandated to promote and protect human rights: the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. Finally, challenges to the Inter-American system are discussed.