This chapter considers the protections afforded to children by international human rights law. It begins with a consideration of the international legal definition of the ‘child’. Focusing on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, the chapter considers the basic principles underlying the rights of the child: non-discrimination, the best interests of the child, the right to life, survival and development, the right to be heard, and the evolving capacity of the child. The chapter then considers the 4Ps that reflect the diversity of protection afforded by international law to the rights of the child: prevention, provision, protection, and participation. Finally, the chapter examines the protection of children’s rights at the regional level.