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Card, Cross & Jones Criminal Law

Card, Cross & Jones Criminal Law (22nd edn)

Richard Card and Jill Molloy
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date: 02 December 2023

p. 413. Actus reuslocked

p. 413. Actus reuslocked

  • Richard CardRichard CardEmeritus Professor of Law, De Montfort University, Leicester
  •  and Jill MolloyJill MolloySenior Lecturer in Law, Birmingham City University


The expression actus reus can be summarized as meaning an act (or sometimes an omission or state of affairs) indicated in the definition of the offence charged together with any consequence of that act, and any surrounding circumstance (other than the mens rea requirements or excuse.) There can be no criminal liability unless the whole actus reus is satisfied. This chapter explains what is involved in the requirement that the actus reus of an offence must be committed if the defendant is to be criminally liable. It also explains acts, omissions and states of affairs, consequences and circumstances, justifications or excuses and causation.

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