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Card, Cross & Jones Criminal Law

Card, Cross & Jones Criminal Law (22nd edn)

Richard Card and Jill Molloy
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date: 27 September 2023

p. 332. Introduction to criminal liabilitylocked

p. 332. Introduction to criminal liabilitylocked

  • Richard CardRichard CardEmeritus Professor of Law, De Montfort University, Leicester
  •  and Jill MolloyJill MolloySenior Lecturer in Law, Birmingham City University


This chapter provides an outline of the elements which determine criminal liability, and of the rules relating to proof of those elements. Liability for an offence requires that the defendant’s outward conduct satisfies the requirements of that offence (ie the actus reus components) and that the defendant’s has the requisite legally blameworthy state of mind (ie the mens rea components). A defendant who satisfies these requirements may nevertheless not be liable for the offence if he has a defence specifically provided for or a efence under the general principles of criminal liability. ctus reus will be considered in more depth in Chapter 3 and mens rea will be considered further in chapter 4. The chapter will conclude by considering the burden of proof that ieeds to be proved to establish criminal liability.

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