This chapter explains the law of adoption. When an adoption order is made by a court in England and Wales, the legal connection between a child and her birth family is completely and permanently ended and she is transferred in to a new family. Changes in society during the second half of the twentieth century created a new model of adoption, reflected in the legislative framework of the Adoption and Children Act 2002. However, there are ongoing complex questions about what the purpose of adoption should be. The idea that a court order can overcome biological and social relationships can seem artificial, imposing a fictitious narrative that might be difficult to sustain throughout a lifetime. The chapter also discusses special guardianship in the context of alternatives to adoption.