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Card & James' Business Law

Card & James' Business Law (4th edn)

Lee Roach
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date: 30 March 2023

p. 1186. The formation of the contractlocked

p. 1186. The formation of the contractlocked

  • Lee RoachLee RoachSenior Lecturer in Law, University of Portsmouth


This chapter examines the legal requirements relating to the formation of a contract. It discusses the five essential elements of a contract, namely offer, acceptance (offer and acceptance are collectively referred to as ‘agreement’), certainty, consideration, and the intention to create legal relations. It analyses these individual requirements in detail and considers the courts’ approach in determining whether an enforceable contract is present or not. This chapter also explains the principles of different types of contracts, namely the distinction between bilateral and unilateral contracts, and how the normal rules of contractual formation are modified in the cases involving unilateral contracts.

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