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Intellectual Property Law

Intellectual Property Law (1st edn)

Stavroula Karapapa and Luke McDonagh
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date: 29 March 2023

p. 1055. Defenceslocked

p. 1055. Defenceslocked

  • Stavroula KarapapaStavroula KarapapaProfessor of Intellectual Property and Information Law, University of Reading
  •  and Luke McDonaghLuke McDonaghSenior Lecturer in Law, City, University of London


This chapter looks at the relevant statutory and non-statutory defences to copyright infringement. Defences against copyright infringement usually take the form of the so-called exceptions and limitations to copyright, which are meant to enhance and maintain a balance of interests between copyright holders and users. Exceptions allow individuals to carry out an exclusive act in relation to a copyright work, without asking authorisation from the copyright holder and without having to pay remuneration. Limitations, on the other hand, allow individuals to carry out an exclusive act in relation to a copyright work in return for paying remuneration to the copyright holder. The chapter then sets out the principal general copyright defences — which are discussed under the umbrella term of ‘fair dealing’ — and indicates which categories of work are covered by which defence and the requirements attached to each.

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