- Susan EastonSusan EastonProfessor of Law, Brunel University
- and Christine PiperChristine PiperEmeritus Professor of Law, Brunel University
This chapter begins by discussing the nature of punishment before focusing on key questions in penal policy including justice, risk, and human rights. It also considers the principal factors that shape the development of penal policy, notably political imperatives, economic influences, and penological and criminological principles, as well as public opinion and the media, which have become much more influential since the early 1990s. Recent penal policy developments are also discussed to highlight significant trends and problems. The chapter concludes by focusing on the governance of sex offenders and providing a case study and discussion questions for reflection on the issues.