Show Summary Details
International Law ConcentrateLaw Revision and Study Guide

International Law Concentrate: Law Revision and Study Guide (5th edn)

Ilias Bantekas and Efthymios Papastavridis
Page of

Printed from Oxford Law Trove. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 12 June 2024

p. 14911. Use of forcelocked

p. 14911. Use of forcelocked

  • Ilias Bantekas
  •  and Efthymios Papastavridis


This chapter examines under what circumstances States may use armed force under customary international law and Arts 2(4) and 51 UN Charter. After noting that the use of armed force is generally prohibited and only limited to self-defence, and then only if the target State is under an armed attack, we show that several States have expanded the notion of armed attack. Besides self-defence, the United Nations Security Council may authorize the use of armed force through a process of collective security. Several examples of collective security are offered, as well as the ICJ’s position on what constitutes an armed attack. In recent years, the range of actors capable of undertaking an armed attack has included terrorists. Moreover, the development of the doctrine of the responsibility to protect is a significant achievement.

You do not currently have access to this chapter

Sign in

Please sign in to access the full content.


Access to the full content requires a subscription