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Evidence ConcentrateLaw Revision and Study Guide

Evidence Concentrate: Law Revision and Study Guide (7th edn)

Maureen Spencer and John Spencer
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date: 04 December 2023

p. 1418. Identification, care warnings, and questioning at triallocked

p. 1418. Identification, care warnings, and questioning at triallocked

  • Maureen SpencerMaureen SpencerFormer Associate Professor Middlesex University
  •  and John SpencerJohn SpencerBarrister


This chapter examines a number of procedural matters in criminal trials. It first explains suspect evidence and the erosion of the rules on corroboration under the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (CJPOA)1994. It then concentrates in some detail on identification evidence concerned with the Turnbull directions and the provisions of Code D Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) 1984. The extent to which the defendant’s lies may constitute evidence of guilt is explained, along with a review of Lucas directions. It continues with a review of the various procedural aspects of examination and cross-examination. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the rules on cross-examination of complainants in sexual cases on their previous sexual history along with the case law under s41 Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (YJCEA)1999.

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