- Maureen SpencerMaureen SpencerFormer Associate Professor Middlesex University
- and John SpencerJohn SpencerBarrister
This chapter, which focuses on hearsay evidence and its relationship to confessions, first considers the rule against hearsay and its application to out-of-court statements of witnesses in civil and criminal cases. It then looks at statements, both oral and written, and gestures, as well as the admissibility of hearsay in criminal proceedings under the Criminal Justice Act (CJA) 2003 and, in outline, in civil proceedings under the Civil Evidence Act (CEA) 1995. The survival of some common law rules on hearsay is discussed. The chapter also explains the legal distinction between first-hand (what X told Y) and multiple hearsay (what X told Y who told Z). It concludes by discussing the landmark decisions under Art 6(3)(d) of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR).