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Public Law

Public Law (3rd edn)

John Stanton and Craig Prescott
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date: 29 February 2024

p. 57515. Tribunalslocked

p. 57515. Tribunalslocked

  • John StantonJohn StantonSenior Lecturer in Law at The City Law School, City, University of London
  •  and Craig PrescottCraig PrescottLecturer in Law, Bangor University


This chapter discusses tribunals and their role within the administrative justice system. It considers the purpose of tribunals, their advantages over the courts and the difference between tribunals and judicial review. The chapter than outlines the structure of tribunals, focusing on the two-tier system introduced by the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007, and the roles of the First-tier Tribunal and the Upper Tribunal. The ability to appeal from the First-tier Tribunal to the Upper Tribunal is then outlined together with the possibility of making an onward appeal on a point of law to the Court of Appeal and potentially direct to the Supreme Court. The chapter also analyses the development of ‘Cart judicial reviews’, which is when the Upper Tribunal is itself reviewed by the High Court, and scrutinises proposals to abolish this procedure. Different aspects of tribunal procedure, including oral or paper-based hearings, and different approaches to conducting oral hearings are also discussed. The chapter concludes by considering potential reforms, including the move to holding tribunals online.

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