- Alison Jones, Alison JonesSolicitor, Professor of Law, King’s College London
- Brenda SufrinBrenda SufrinSolicitor, Emeritus Professor of Law, University of Bristol
- and Niamh DunneNiamh DunneSolicitor, Associate Professor of Law, London School of Economics
Article 102 TFEU deals with the unilateral conduct of undertakings with substantial market power. It thus prohibits one or more undertakings which hold a dominant position in the internal market, or a substantial part of it, abusing that position insofar as it may affect inter-Member State trade. This chapter discusses the role of Article 102 and the controversy attending its application, and introduces the elements which must be established before the prohibition applies. The Commission’s review of Article 102, the publication of its Guidance Paper on enforcement priorities and subsequent amendments to this document, and the relationship between Article 102 and Article 101, are considered. The chapter also explores in detail one of the principal limbs of the Article 102 prohibition, namely the concept of an undertaking holding a ‘dominant position’ in a relevant market. The definition of a dominant position in the case law of the Court is discussed, alongside its relation to the concept of substantial market power. The chapter then considers how dominance is established, addressing, inter alia, the definition of the relevant market for the purposes of Article 102; the role of market share in establishing dominance; and barriers to entry and other factors indicating dominance.